Difficult to learn analytical skills: the art of interpretation ●Inductive Reasoning○Begin with empirical social world○Develop a theory from the data ○Data —> theory●Example: Susan Walzer’s research●mothers well-being●how do couples negotiate transitions to parenthood?●50 couples interviewed●analysis of transcripts: women and men have different experiences - theory: WHY?●what it means to be a parent is different for women and men●emerged from the data
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS●The study of non-measurable, subjective behaviours (e.g., the effects of divorce)●Use words to understand how social issues affect individuals●Concern is not on the effects for the group but the individual JEAN KILBOURNE, TEDTALK●Jean Kilbourne: Killing Us Softly ●women represented in a limited number of ways and in only a few areas of sociallife●sexualized, infantilized, domesticated and victimized - rendered susceptible to violence●image stability : femininity: care/home; masculinity: work/politics/rationality●DRAG●Gender as Performative○DOING, not being○constantly performing activities appropriate to definitions of masculinity and femininity○gender as a convincing achievement ○a form of drag○if gender is a performed accomplishment, it is not natural and can and does changeDOUBLE GHETTOBINARIES/DICHOTOMIES●dichotomies (also sometimes called 'binaries' and/or 'binarisms') are the subject of attention because they may form the basis to divisions and inequality.POSITIVISM●the philosophy of quantitative research●borrowed from physical sciences●A theoretical approach that considers all understanding to be based on science●4 tenets of positivism ○a single objective truth can be discovered (if we collect enough data and manipulate it – we can find the exact truth)○Right and wrong answered○Numbers don’t lie○Research can be objective, unbiased (positivists believe objectivity is possible)FUNCTIONALIST THEORY OF GENDER●suggests that gender inequalities exist as an efficient way to create a division of labor, or as a social system in which a particular segment of the population is clearly responsible for certain acts of labor and another segment is clearly responsible for other labor acts.
CONSTRUCTIONS OF MASCULINITY●Gender as a SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION○a social system specific to a society○organizes relations between women and men, including their relative social value ○NOT a ‘thing’ one has○ideas and practices associated with masculinity and femininity in a society○gendered ideas and practices change as the larger social context changesQUANTITATIVE RESEARCH●uses numbersas its unit of analysis●social life converted into numbers (e.g., questionnaire answers)●numbers manipulated statistically to find patterns in the data●used the patterns to determine:■1. cause/effect (e.g., race/wages) ■2. probability (e.g., election polls) - likelihood that something is