Normal Paco 2 is 35 to 45 mm Hg. A higher CO 2 level indicates hypoventilation from shallow breathing. A lower Paco2 level indicates hyperventilation. The respiratory system, which can handle twice as many acids and bases as the buffer systems, responds in minutes, but compensation is temporary. Long-term adjustments require the renal system. 3) The renal system maintains acid-base balance by absorbing or excreting acids and bases. Also, the kidneys can produce HCO 3 – to replenish lost supplies. The normal HCO 3 – level is 22 to 26 mEq/L. When blood is acidic, the kidneys reabsorb HCO 3 – and excrete H+. When blood is alkaline, the kidneys excrete HCO 3 – and retain H+. Unlike the lungs, the kidneys may take 24 hours before starting to restore normal pH. 10. Describe the path of a sperm cell from the site of its maturation to the site of the acrosomal reaction. Include the major function of each segment in this process and descriptions and functions of fluids added along that path . Sperm mature in the epididymis. From there, they travel through the ductus (Vas) deferens through the abdominal cavity to the ampulla of the ductus deferens which merges with the duct of the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct. Sperm and the alkaline, fructose-rich fluid from the seminal vesicle move from the ejaculatory duct into the prostatic urethra, where they are mixed with a slightly acidic mucoid fluid from the prostate. Next the sperm and fluid pass through the membranous urethra and are mixed with additional alkaline secretions from the bulbourethral
glands. The combination of sperm and secretions is called semen. The mixture travels through the penile urethra as it is ejaculated.
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- Summer '17