Building on this matrix analysis fischer and arnold

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Building on this matrix analysis, Fischer and Arnold conduct an among- intersections analysis. Th ey undertake a survey to examine several main and interaction e ff ects. Th ey propose and verify that women are more involved than men in gi ft -shopping women with traditional gender-role attitudes are more involved in gi ft - shopping than women with egalitarian gender-role attitudes men with egalitarian gender-role attitudes are more involved in gi ft - shopping than men with traditional gender-role attitudes <±±²±³³´LQGE µ¶¶ ±±·¸¸·±± ±¸¹º± 30
400 • Gender, Culture, and Consumer Behavior persons with more feminine gender identities (regardless of their sex) are more involved in gi ft -shopping Fischer and Arnold de fi ne being more involved in Christmas gi ft -shop- ping as giving gi ft s to more recipients, starting one’s shopping earlier, spending more time per recipient, and experiencing greater success in gi ft selection. Fischer and Arnold’s (1990) basic premise—that there is signi fi cant het- erogeneity within social identity categories (i.e., among men and among women)—is a fundamental notion in the intersectionality literature. It is also worth noting that their quantitative approach to among-intersec- tions analysis is supported by other recent advocates of intersectionality research (Berdahl & Moore, 2006; McCall, 2001a, 2001b). “The Role of Normative Political Ideology in Consumer Behavior” Th is paper by Crockett and Wallendorf (2004) examines the role of political ideology in the domain of everyday provisioning (e.g., grocery shopping). Although theirs is not an analysis that involves gender as a structure, their empirical research nicely illustrates what may be described as a within- intersection analysis because it investigates the unique circumstances and divergent responses of a marginalized social group. In the context of Black Milwaukee, also known as the ghetto, resident consumers have severely attenuated access to marketplace goods and services, “symbolized by rot- ting fruit, green meat, and shelves without unit pricing in ghetto stores” (p. 525). Drawing on ethnographic data, the authors reveal these consum- ers’ divergent responses to this problem: outmigration, opposition to out- migration, outshopping, neighborhood loyalty, Black entrepreneurship, etc. Th e authors also show how this diversity of responses aligns with con- sumers’ own political ideologies (Black liberal, Black nationalist). Th e authors’ theoretical discussion also provides an excellent example of a process analysis that fi ts well within the tradition of intersectional- ity research. Th ey develop an intricate recursive model of social relations wherein socioeconomic structures are the foundations for particular ide- ologies, ideologies are a guiding framework for marketplace behavior, and the marketplace is an alternate political sphere where consumers attempt to reproduce or transform socioeconomic structures to reinforce their <±±²±³³´LQGE ³ºº ±±·¸¸·±± ±¸¹º± 30
Beyond Gender • 401 worldviews. Finally, researcher re fl exivity is a common ethic in intersec-

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