along with histamines, produce circulatory (early tachycardia, hypotension, ECG changes, clamminess, later bradycardia, etc.), respiratory (wheezing, labored breathing, chest tightness, hoarseness, dysphagia, stridor, etc.), gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting, cramping, diarrhea), and cutaneous effects (pallor, erythema, hives, itching, lip swelling) (Bethel, 2013, table 1). The signs and symptoms are dependent on which cell the H 1 or H 2 receptor binds (Scarlet, 2006, p. 42). The elicited response can be immediate or delayed for days. If the receptor sites located on endothelial cells the junctions are affected causing vascular permeability with resulting vasodilation. If the cells a lung tissue the permeability causes pulmonary edema which could be life-threatening. The fluid volume can rapidly shift up to 50% from intracellular to extracellular space (Scarlet, 2006, p. 42). If the pulmonary smooth muscles constrict and the fluid levels shift thereby dropping the blood pressure and tachycardia with diminished oxygen delivery is affected the person is near death. The ADP must quickly assess the signs and symptoms for cardiovascular collapse and respiratory compromise. Any symptoms that affect the airway, breathing or circulation requires an emergency response and treatment modalities administered. Triggers & Treatment The triggers seen the most often in children are foods but while adults are triggered by insect venoms, foods, and medicines (Ring, Klimek, & Worm, 2018, table 1). Epinephrine is a central pharmacological intervention especially in pulmonary and circulation symptoms (Ring et al., 2018, table 2). Epinephrine/Adrenaline delivers the systemic vasoconstriction needed with bronchodilation, the alpha and beta receptors (Ring et al., 2018, p. 530). People use the Epi-pen (0.15-0.5mg) IM outside of the hospital if they feel an exposure occurred. The levels of
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- Fall '17
- keisha lovence
- Mast cell, Allergy