For example people often associate violence with

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2017). For example, people often associate violence with sadness, or bad feelings that could potentially lead to fear, aggression, etc. If people in a study were shown videos of brutality, murder, or aggression, and later asked how watching that made them feel, they may respond they made them upset or stressed out. From that study, researchers could conclude that violence and brutality have a causal relationship in producing fear or stress, therefore giving the study good internal validity. On the other hand, external validity is an attribute of an experiment in which variables have been defined in a normal, typical, or realistic way (Schacter et al., 2017). This means that researchers must be able to determine how valid their experimental sample results are in relation to the real world. For example, there is a stigma that media violence contributes greatly to the aggressive behavior of children, however, there is controversy concerning which types of media violence contribute to this (Schacter et al., 2017). If researchers wanted to create a study in determining which types of media violence contribute to causing aggressive behavior then they would need to control the type of media violence each child witnesses and assess their behavior from there. However, external validity proves to be tricky because there often psychologists are not entirely able to replicate the real world in their variables, not to mention, there could be other outside factors that contribute to the results that show (Schacter et al., 2017). 5. Causation cannot be derived from correlation. Just because there is a relationship or correlation between two factors, does not mean that one caused the other, or vice versa.
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Often times there is a third variable in which the two factors are both casually related to, leading to the misconception that the two factors themselves, are in fact related (Schacter et al., 2017). Two ways to control this common misconception include manipulation and random assignment. Manipulation occurs when a variable is changed in order to determine it’s casual power (Schacter et al., 2017). It ensures that the third variable will not affect the other variables and cause differing results. On the other hand, random assignment is a procedure that lets chance assign participants to the experimental or control group (Schacter et al., 2017). By doing this, researchers are helping to limit or eliminate confounding variables that could potentially affect the experiment.
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