2. Ethics, then, is not based on consequences, as it is, for example, in utilitarianism. The consequences of our decisions are beyond our control. 3. Is there a problem with event-description in applying the Categorical Imperative? No two situations in our experience are exactly alike. How much of a difference in initial conditions makes a difference in the application of the Categorical Imperative? Kant's answer: contingent circumstances do not matter. III. Practical Imperative: "Act to treat humanity, whether yourself or another, as an end-in-itself and never as a means." A. Don't use people in order to obtain your goals or seek an edge or unfair advantage. B. People have rights which would supersede, for example, the tyranny of the majority in utilitarianism. C. Some difficulties in interpretation of the Kantian doctrine arise from these further questions: How far should respect for persons proceed? What if you are constantly used by other persons? Does the practical imperative imply that we should have no goals in dealing with other persons and ourselves?
The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration ( OSHA ) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. It was created by Congress of the United States under the Occupational Safety and Health Act, signed by President Richard M Nixon, on December 29, 1970. Its mission is to prevent work-related injuries, illnesses, and occupational fatality by issuing and enforcing rules called standards for workplace safety and health. The agency is headed by a Deputy Assistant Secretary of Labor. The OSH Act, which created OSHA also created the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as a research agency focusing on occupational health and safety. NIOSH, however, is not a part of the U.S. Department of Labor. OSHA federal regulations cover most private sector workplaces. The OSH Act permits states to develop approved plans as long as they cover public sector employees and they provide protection equivalent to that provided under Federal OSHA regulations. In return, a portion of the cost of the approved state program is paid by the federal government. Twenty-two states and territories operate plans covering both the public and private sectors and five — Connecticut, Illinois, New Jersey, New York and the US Virgin Islands — operate public employee only plans. In those five states, private sector employment remains under Federal OSHA jurisdiction. In 2000, the United States Postal Act made the U.S. Postal Service the only quasi-governmental entity to fall under the purview of OSHA jurisdiction. This change permits OSHA to fine the U.S. Postal Service as if it were a regular non-governmental organization. Regulatory impact Here are some of the changes in industrial safety regulation brought about by OSHA: 1.
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