1550s – first Spanish settlers introduce Criolla (mission grape) o 1850s – Vinifera grapes introduced by French winemakers o **Phylloxera NEVER affects area (b/c of isolation and protection by Andes and Pacific) o 1990s – quality and exports increase dramatically 7
How are wines in each country named? - Wines in all South American countries are named using the Grape Varietal easy for consumers to decipher - Australian labels use blends, bins, and “critter” (animal) labels - Labels also include information about producer and region What terms on each country’s wine labels are meaningful and what do they tell us? - See above on labeling requirements (usually varietal minimums) What label terms are not regulated and thus may not provide useful information to the purchaser? - Again, see above for labeling requirements (reserve generally not-controlled) Are there individuals who made a significant impact on the wine industry in any of these countries? - Nicolas Catena led the wine revolution in Argentina (1990s) o Known as the “Robert Mondavi of Argentina” o Catena Zepeta wine (his company) is considered the leader in winemaking in Argentina today - The French & Italians are important because they brought over many of the European varietals that are commonly mass produced in these Southern Hemisphere regions today Review and decode all labels on your tasting sheets. See class handouts France—Bordeaux What are the AOC levels of Bordeaux wines? - Regional – AOC Bordeaux (40% of red, 70% of total white) - Sub Regional – Haut Medoc - Commune – AOC Margaux - Chateau – Chateau Margaux What are the major grape varieties grown in the different districts or appellations of Bordeaux? - Overall in Bordeaux… o Whites = Semillon (dominant), Sauv. Blanc, Muscadelle, Ugni Blanc o Reds = Merlot (dominant), Cab Suav, Cab Franc, Malbec, Petit Verdot - Left Bank Cabernet Sauvignon is dominant grape b/c of stony/pebble soil conditions - Right Bank Merlot is dominant grape b/c of clay soil type o Left Bank districts = Haut-Medoc, Pessac-Leognan, Graves **Haut-Medoc is the most important district, containing 4 principal communes** St-Estephe, Pauillac, St-Julien, Margaux Also 2 smaller communes (Listrac and Moulis) o Right Bank districts = St-Emilion, Pomerol Which of the fine wine producing districts of Bordeaux have been classified? - 1855 Medoc and Sauternes/Barsac were classified = Grand Crus Classes (first growths) - 1953/1959 Classification of Graves - 1954/1996 Classification of St-Emilion - 1972 Classification of the Cru Bourgeois of Medoc region 8
o Pomerol has never been classified or ranked - Cru bourgeois: category in Medoc not designated as Great Growths in 1855, but good values & quality - Petits Chateaux: wines that have never received any classification (young, approachable, cheap) What are the names of the five Chateaux which hold the First Growth Status today?
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- Fall '08
- reds, burgundy, Fortified Wines, Regional Wine