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The authors, editors and publishers therefore disclaim all liability for direct or consequential damages resulting from the use of material contained in this book. Readers are strongly advised to pay careful attention to information provided by the manufacturer of any drugs or equipment that they plan to use.
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Contents Acknowledgments xi 1. Fundamentals 1 Introduction 1 Basic definitions and physics principles 1 Basic instrumentation 5 Using the transducer/probe 7 Understanding the formed image 11 Adjusting the image 12 Scanning modes 14 Effects and artifacts 16 SECTION 1: DIAGNOSTIC ULTRASOUND 23 2. Focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) 27 Introduction 27 Focused questions for the FAST exam 28 Anatomy 28 Technique 32 Scanning tips 38 Normal images 39 Abnormal images 42 Extended FAST or eFAST 47 Sample clinical protocol 49 Literature review 50 Detection of pneumothorax 51 New directions 56 References 57 3. Cardiac ultrasound 61 Introduction 61 Focused questions for cardiac ultrasound 61 Anatomy 62 Technique 63 Scanning tips 73 Normal images 74 Contents v Contents
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Abnormal images 76 Sample clinical protocols 86 Literature review 87 New directions 88 References 88 4. First trimester ultrasound 91 Introduction 91 Focused questions for first trimester ultrasound 92 Terminology 92 hCG levels 93 Anatomy 93 Technique 94 Scanning tips 101 Normal images in early pregnancy 101 Ectopic pregnancy 106 Abnormal images 107 Sample clinical protocol 109 Literature review 110 New directions 111 References 112 5. Abdominal aorta ultrasound 115 Introduction 115 Focused questions for aorta ultrasound 115 Anatomy 116 Technique 116 Scanning tips 124 Abnormal images 125 Sample clinical protocol 128 Literature review 129 References 130 6. Renal and bladder ultrasound 133 Introduction 133 Focused questions for renal and bladder ultrasound 134 Anatomy 134 Technique 136 Bladder volume estimation 138 vi Contents Contents
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Scanning tips 138 Normal images 140 Abnormal images 141 Sample clinical protocol 147 Literature review 148 New directions 148 References 149 7. Gallbladder ultrasound 151 Introduction 151 Focused questions for gallbladder ultrasound 151 Anatomy 151 Technique 152 Measurements 156 Scanning tips 158 Normal images 159 Abnormal images 160 Mimics 167 Sample clinical protocol 168 Literature review 169 References 171 8. Ultrasound of the deep venous system 173 Introduction 173 Focused questions for DVT ultrasound 173 Anatomy 173 Technique 175 Scanning tips 180 Normal images 181 Abnormal images 182 Sample clinical protocol 185 Advanced techniques 186 Literature review 187 New directions 188 References 189 9. Respiratory ultrasound 191 Introduction 191 Focused questions for respiratory ultrasound 191 Anatomy 192 Contents vii Contents
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Technique 195 Scanning tips 197 Normal images 198 Abnormal images 198 Literature review 199 New directions 200 References 200 10. Ocular ultrasound 203 Introduction 203 Focused questions for ocular ultrasound 203 Anatomy 204 Technique 205 Scanning tips 206 Normal images 206 Abnormal images 207 Literature review 209 New directions 210 References 210 11. Soft tissue and musculoskeletal ultrasound 213 Introduction 213
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