VocabularyPan-Africanrefers to a vision of strengthening all of Africa, not just a sin-gle country.Contrasting How did the granting of inde-pendence to the British colonies of Ghana and Kenya differ?Jomo Kenyatta1891–1978A man willing to spend years in jail for his beliefs, Kenyatta viewed independence as the only option for Africans. The African can only advance to a “higher level” if he is free to express himself, to organize economically, politically and socially, and to take part in the government of his own country.On the official day that freedom finally came to Kenya, December 12, 1963, Kenyatta recalls watching with overwhelming delight as the British flag came down and the new flag of Kenya rose up. He called it “the greatest day in Kenya’s history and the happiest day in my life.”do with the areas where ethnic groups actually lived. While national borders sepa-rated people with similar cultures, they also enclosed traditional enemies who began fighting each other soon after the Europeans left. For many African nations, all of this led to instability, violence, and an overall struggle to deal with their newly gained independence. Ghana Leads the WayThe British colony of the Gold Coast became the first African colony south of the Sahara to achieve independence. Following World War II, the British in the Gold Coast began making preparations. For example, they allowed more Africans to be nominated to the Legislative Council. However, the Africans wanted full freedom. The leader of their largely nonviolent movement was Kwame Nkrumah(KWAH•mee-uhn•KROO•muh). Starting in 1947, he worked to liberate the Gold Coast from the British. Nkrumah organized strikes and boycotts and was often imprisoned by the British government. Ultimately, his efforts were successful.On receiving its independence in 1957, the Gold Coast took the name Ghana. This name honored a famous West African kingdom of the past. Nkrumah became Ghana’s first prime minister and later its president-for-life. Nkrumah pushed through new roads, new schools, and expanded health facilities. These costly projects soon crip-pled the country. His programs for industrialization, health and welfare, and expanded educational facilities showed good intentions. However, the expense of the programs undermined the economy and strengthened his opposition.In addition, Nkrumah was often criticized for spending too much time on Pan-African efforts and neglecting economic problems in his own country. He dreamed of a “United States of Africa.” In 1966, while Nkrumah was in China, the army and police in Ghana seized power. Since then, the country has shifted back and forth between civilian and military rule and has struggled for economic stability. In 2000, Ghana held its first open elections.