5051 generalizability might also be limited because

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50,51 Generalizability might also be limited because the participants who remained in the cohort (e.g., English-speaking only, lived with both parents, reported making grades of A and B, less likely to have had a boyfriend or girlfriend) might be at lower risk for engaging in dating violence than students who did not remain in the cohort. Fourth, although we used multi- level modeling to adjust the regression esti- mates and standard errors for ICC among students within the same school, a larger number of schools would be preferable and would produce more accurate estimates of the variance components in the model. How- ever, even small higher level units (schools), such as those in this study, were shown to produce unbiased estimates of the fi xed ef- fects. 52 Fourth, only 1 item was used to assess physical dating violence; however, this item was similar to the 1 item used to assess this construct in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey. 1 Lastly, self-reported data were used; how- ever, using the audio---computer-assisted self- interviews approach helped to increase student accuracy in responses and their perceptions of con fi dentiality. 53 Conclusions This study s fi ndings indicated that IYG was an effective program for preventing dating violence among ethnic-minority middle school youths. Its current use among many students as an effective adolescent pregnancy prevention program could increase the likelihood that even more positive effects could be seen for dating violence prevention. Additional study, however, is needed to determine if IYG should be widely disseminated in dating violence prevention efforts. j About the Authors All authors are with the Center for Health Promotion and Prevention Research, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) School of Public Health. Correspondence should be sent to Melissa F. Peskin, PhD, Center for Health Promotion and Prevention Research, UTHealth School of Public Health, 7000 Fannin St., Suite 2658, Houston, TX 77030 (e-mail: [email protected] uth.tmc.edu). Reprints can be ordered at by clicking the Reprints link. This article was accepted January 18, 2014. Contributors M. F. Peskin directed the study and conceptualized and wrote the article. C. M. Markham conceptualized and designed the study. R. Shegog was involved in the conceptualization of the intervention. E. R. Baumler conducted all data analyses. R. C. Addy assisted with data analyses. S. R. Tortolero obtained the funding and conceptualized and designed the study. All co-authors offered critical revisions to the article and approved the fi nal version. Acknowledgments This study was funded by the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) (R01 MH66640-01). We thank Lionel Santibáñez for his editorial assistance. Human Participant Protection This study was approved by the UTHealth institutional review board and the school district s Of fi ce of Research and Accountability.

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