These crimes include property crimes (theft, forgery, and vandalism), personal crimes (rape, robbery, assault, and murder), and performancecrimes (e. g., fighting and disturbing the peace).Foreign friendly civilian crimes are committed against citizens of another country. The same types of crimes found under extra-occupational crimes but committed against foreigners, are examples.Enemy civilian social system crimes are crimes against residents of countries in which the U. S. military is fighting. Examples of such crimes include property crimes (e. g., looting and pillaging), personal crimes (e. g., committing atrocities and massacres), and performance crimes (e. g., colluding with citizens to harm theU. S. military).Inter-occupational crimes are crimes committedagainst the enemy military system. These include property crimes (e. g., misappropriation of captured supplies), personal crimes (e. g., torture and mistreatment of prisoners of war), and performance crimes (e. g., helping the enemy).oState-corporate crime- Governmental agencies are employers (or “corporations”) and these agencies and their employees sometimes commit various types of misconduct. Crime is committed on behalf of the government. According to Ross and Rothe ( 2008), those whoexpose state crime offenders run the risk of experiencing the following responses from the state: Censure: Officials may withdraw support or withhold information.Scapegoating: Officials may blame lower-level employees for the misconduct.Retaliation: Officials may target the advocatesexposing the wrongdoing.Defiance or resistance: Officials may block any efforts toward change.Plausible deniability: Officials may conceal actions to make behavior seem appropriate.
Relying on self-righteousness: Officials minimize allegations.Redirection / misdirection: Officials feign interest but change the subject.Fear mongering: Officials create fear to “overshadow” real issues.Crimes by Officials in the Religious SystemChurches and religious institutions are not exempt from misconduct. One example is the Catholic Church sexual abuse scandal. Crimes within the religious system usually fall into one of the following categories:FinancialReligious system deceptionCatholic Church Sexual Abuse ScandalChapter Five SummaryVarieties of police misconduct include corruption of authority, kickbacks, opportunistic theft, shake-downs, protection of illegal activities, fixing cases, direct criminal activities, internal payoffs ( Barker & Roebucks, 1973), and sexual misconduct.McCarthy (1981) identified four varieties of corruption in corrections: embezzlement (stealing from the institution), drug smuggling into the institution, coercion, and transporting contraband into the prison system.