species. They have no red blood cells (or hemoglobin) making their blood completely colorless. They have a sort of antifreeze in their blood which is necessary for them to survive in Antarctic temperatures. Some species also have reduced the need for myoglobin in their muscles. These fish were forced to adapt to a new environment or else perish. They have no fossilized records, but they have a DNA record which scientists have analyzed to determine which genes have become fossil genes (no longer used at all, but still resides in the DNA code). Variation, selection, and time are essential to natural selection. Ch 2 Einstein's theory of compounding interest is very similar, math wise, to Darwin's theory of natural selection. Growth from an initial point is dramatic after many years of compounding Small differences among individuals are important, when compounded by natural selection over time, and add up to the large differences between species.Selection can take place from beyond the initial gene pool only through mutations. "Selection on small degrees of continuum" can turn small genetic mutations into a new selection for a species. As sample size increases, margin of error decreases. Scientists must also consider "selective agents" that restrict populations, such as multiple predators, conditions that vary with habitat and time of day, or migration of species."The mutation process is blind. Natural selection is not. Mutation generates random variation. Selection sorts out the winners and losers."Mutations in DNA replication are very common (175 per person!), but most don't cause noticeable effects.depend on change and time which depends on population "The limit to evolution is not what is mutationally possible, but rather ecologically necessary."Selection acts on the here and now, not past or future. Selection rejects harmful mutations, favors beneficial mutations and ignores neutral mutations.
- Summer '19