Radical whigs and republican minded artisans

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Radical Whigs and republican minded artisans supported American demands for autonomy + campaigned for domestic political reforms wanted more representation for cities in Parliament and elimination of rotten boroughs
oGentry protested higher land tax oMerchants condemned levies on carriages, wine, and imported goodsKing George III at first remained committed to crushing rebellion, but after British defeat at Saratoga, he changed his mindoTo prevent American reliance with France, he sent Lord North to negotiatea settlement North persuaded Parliament to repeal Tea and Prohibitory acts and to renounce its power to tax coloniesoNorth proposed a return to constitutional condition of 1763, before Sugar and Stamp acts, but Patriots, now allied with France, rejected itWar in the SouthFrench alliance didn’t bring rapid end to waroWhen French forces entered war in June 1778, they were sent to capture Barbados, Jamaica, and other rich sugar islandsSpain joined war against Britain in 1779 to regain Florida and fortress of Gibraltarat entrance of Mediterranean SeaMeanwhile, British revised military strategy in America and shifted main theater of war to the SouthBritain’s Southern StrategyRather than using army to isolate NE, British turned attention to tobacco and rice growing colonies VA, SC, and GA planned to win these areas and rely on Loyalists to hold themoCarolinas British hoped to count on allegiance of Scottish Highlanders and recruit other Loyalists from Regulators, the enemies of the low country Patriot planters, and to mobilize Cherokees and other Indians against land hungry AmericansoPlanned to exploit racial divisions in the south thought a British invasion might prompt thousands of slaves to flee Patriot ownersSlavery was double edged sword source of wealth in peacetime, but a danger in warSC said they couldn’t raise army because citizens were necessary to prevent revolt of Negroes Implementing Britain’s southern military strategy was job of Sir Henry Clinton oMoving British army to quarters in NYC, Clinton ordered seaborne attack on Savannah, Georgia troops under Colonel Archibald Campbell captured the town in December 1778oMobilizing blacks to unload + transport supplies, Campbell moved inland and captured Augusta in early 1779 by end of year, Clinton’s forces andlocal Loyalists controlled Georgia; troops were ready for attack on SCMost of 1780 British forces in South had continuous victories seized Charleston, SC; at Battle of Camden, Cornwallis defeated American force commanded by Horatio Gates, hero of SaratogaAs Cornwallis took control of South Carolina, hundreds of African Americans fled to freedom in British controlled Florida; others found refuge w/ British armyTide turnedwhen Dutchdeclared war with Britain and Francefinally dispatched
troopsin American mainland oFrench decision was partly because of Marquis de Lafayette, a republican

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