Classics-212-Mid-Term-Study-Guide.pdf

How might roman ideas have facilitated their

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-How might Roman ideas have facilitated their emergence as an Italian power? In short, strong Roman identity and proud nationalism (?) manifested itself as actual power. Fighting generates more fighting, and pride generates more pride. Thus, ideals of superiority (the torch bearers of the Greeks)
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6 - Strong emphasis on loyalty - Coming after the Greeks -What shift is marked by the Romans’ first wars with non-Italian powers, i.e. Pyrrhus and the Carthaginians? - Roman becoming a dominant force that threatens other powers militarily -What explains Carthage’s and Rome’s strategies in their wars, and Rome’s victories? First Punic War - War of attrition as a strategy for Rome - Carthage using its Naval advantages - Carthage rewarding merit - heavy losses on both sides due to incompetence Second Punic War (218-201 BC) - Great core conflict in Roman history - Existential war-- one side will/must be destroyed - Carthage’s strategy: crack Roman system of “fides” and interrupt the alliances Third Punic War - Peace treaty from the previous war required that Carthage maintain only minimum amount of forces for protection. King of Numidia (a neighboring state in Africa), who was well connected with the Roman aristocrats, abused this connection and Carthage’s condition to expand his own territory. When Carthage finally retaliated against invading Numidian forces, Roman senate spearheaded by Cato the elder called this a violation of their peace treaty and initiated the 3rd war. CIty of Carthage was besieged and ultimately burned to the ground. Week 3 Identifications Comitia Centuriata – The Roman voting assembly based upon the division of the Roman people into five classes and 193 centuries. Ensured that wealthiest citizens had strongest voice in public affairs. Could only be summoned by a magistrate with imperium; could vote on the election of magistrates with imperium; declare war and peace, enact laws. Comitia Tributa Plebis – originally formed as plebeian-only assembly presided over by tribunes; elected tribunes and aediles of the plebs, could pass motions that were binding upon members of the plebeian order (plebiscites). Legal reforms in 5 th and 4 th C.
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7 BC gave binding authority to communities as a whole. Voting units were tribes. Venue through which laws proposed by tribunes were passed Comitia Tributa Populi - assembly created on the model of the comitia plebis—voting units were tribes. Patricians were admitted, and the presiding officer was a magistrate with imperium. Could pass laws, elect aediles, quaestors, special commissioners. Quaestor – lowest ranking Roman magistrate. Responsibilities for state finances and public works. Under Sullan law governing states for senatorial career, election to quaestorship qualified a person to be a senator.
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