Targets the contractile cells of the mammary glands Causes the myoepithelial

Targets the contractile cells of the mammary glands

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Targets the contractile cells of the mammary glands Causes the myoepithelial cells of the mammary glands to release milk from the nipple In males: OT causes smooth muscle contractions in the prostate gland
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Preganglionic motor fibers Autonomic centers in the hypothalamus exert neural control over hormone secretion by the adrenal medullae. HYPOTHALAMUS Integrative centers release regulatory hormones to control activity of the adenohypophysis (anterior lobe of the pituitary gland). Regulatory hormones reach their targets via the hypophyseal portal system, detailed below. Hypothalamic neurons produce the hormones antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin . After transport along their axons, these hormones are released at the neurohypophysis (posterior lobe of the pituitary gland). 1 2 3 Suprarenal (adrenal) gland Adrenal cortex Adrenal medulla Neurohypophysis (posterior lobe of pituitary gland) Secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine Infundibulum (connection between hypothalamus and the pituitary gland) Adenohypophysis (anterior lobe of pituitary gland) Release of ADH and oxytocin; these hormones are called NEUROSECRETIONS because they are produced and released by neurons. Secretion of hormones that control other endocrine organs ( INHIBITING & RELEASING HORMONES ). Hypothalamus Integrates Nervous & Endocrine Systems in Three Ways
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Regions of the Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis) HYPOTHALAMUS eminence Median Third ventricle Mamillary body Optic chiasm Pars tuberalis Pars intermedia Pars distalis Adenohypophysis (anterior lobe) Neurohypophysis (posterior lobe) Sella turcica The anterior lobe releases 7 different hormones Controlled by secretions of the regulatory hormones Pars distalis secretes the majority of the hormones Pars intermedia secretes melanocyte-stimulating hormone Pars tuberalis wraps around a portion of the infundibulum
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The Hypophyseal Portal System Supraoptic nuclei (production of ADH) Paraventricular nuclei (production of oxytocin) Neurons of integrative centers Median eminence Mamillary body Optic chiasm Primary capillary plexus Adenohypophysis Secondary capillary plexus Neurohypophysis Endocrine cells The superior hypophyseal artery delivers blood to the primary capillary plexus . The portal vessels deliver blood containing regulatory hormones to the secondary capillary plexus within the adenohypophysis. The inferior hypophyseal artery delivers blood to a capillary plexus in the neurohypophysis. This plexus picks up the ADH and oxytocin released by the axons of the hypothalamic neurons shown in green. Hypophyseal veins carry blood containing the pituitary hormones for delivery to the rest of the body. Hormones secreted into interstitial fluid diffuse into primary plexus Delivered to secondary plexus via portal vessels IH and RH are delivered to targeted endocrine cells
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The Pituitary Gland Anterior Pituitary Hormones Thyroid- stimulating hormone (TSH) Adrenocortico- tropic hormone (ACTH) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Luteinizing hormone (LH) Prolactin (PRL) Growth hormone
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