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Humans they also pose the most significant threat for

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humans, they also posethe most significant threatfor theevolutionandtransmissionofzoonotic EIDs. Producing animal protein from aquaculture and aquaponicshas the potentialtobecome anenvironmentally and coevolutionarily more sustainable wayof feedingpart of theworld’s population[46]. In addition, we willalso needto develop a larger variety of palatablenon-meat-based alternatives, which will have direct and indirect health benefits[54]. Reducingthe number of livestock isimperativefor human health, as well as for thehealth of the planet.To implement this and other changes, wemustembrace a coevolutionaryrobust One Healthapproach and focus on what really matters: One World – One Health. Concluding remarksEmerging infectious diseases(EIDs) are possiblythe greatestexistential threat to humanity,but fortunately, we have never been in a stronger position to defend ourselvesagainst thesethreats. COVID-19 has elicited a huge pan-global response among our medical and scientificcommunities, and as a species, we have shown remarkable behavioral plasticity to cope with thenew conditions. Nevertheless, COVID-19 has revealed the tension between our rights asindividuals and the well-being of society as a whole.However, tackling this pandemic requires usto act as an eusocial species rather than as selfish individuals. It calls for increased socialresponsibility, in particularin the uptake ofthe vaccine and adherence to rules designed tocontrol the COVID-19 pandemic. Misinformation on the web and “playing politics” cansignificantly undermine the much-needed concerted response. Going forward, we need torecognize that our health, the environment, and our global economy are all closely interlinked,
163DebateUS!Organize Agricultureand that the world’s natural resources must be governed in a way that attains a coevolutionarybalance. The “One World – One Health” concept was created in 2004, inspired by the “OneMedicine” approach [55] that integrates human and veterinary medicine to respond tozoonoses[56]. By considering the health of humans, wildlife and ecosystems, the holistic OneHealth approach has recruited multisector expertise in dealing with humanity’s greatestchallenge. Newinitiatives are emerging that envision innovativepreventionstrategies, such asPREZODE[42]. I advocate that these initiatives also address the coevolutionary imbalance,integrating this into the One Health framework. Importantly, all these changes require broadpublic support underpinned by an understanding of the significant threat our society is facing,and what we can do at an individual and societal level toimprove our long-term(coevolutionary)prospectsas a species. I believe that this isessentialbecause with increasedglobalization, we have created aperfect stormfor the evolution and outbreak of EIDs.Ratherthan justcombatingthe existing EIDs and minimizing theirsocial-economic impacts, wemustalsocurtail the evolutionofnovelEIDs, therebyreducing the risksoffuture outbreaks, andthepossible transitionfrom the“Anthropocene” into a “Pathocene”.

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Term
Spring
Professor
McCarthy
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