The distribution of services has change and there has

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Nutrition Therapy and Pathophysiology
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Chapter 12 / Exercise 6
Nutrition Therapy and Pathophysiology
Nelms/Sucher
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The distribution of services has change and there has been removal of entry barriers in certain industries such as banking and insurance. Much lower start up costs has created threats to the established players, which if they do not respond to, could lead to decline.New technology leads to innovation of substitutes for example in the pharmaceutical industry, biotechnology and data storage devices.Examples of changes in production processes includes use of robotics and computers. This has led to lower cost of production, better quality goods or both.Competitors.INTERNAL CONSTRAINTS (within the firm)The following are constraints that originate from within the organization but which management must take care of.PRINCIPALSANDPRACTICESOFMANAGEMENT17
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Nutrition Therapy and Pathophysiology
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Chapter 12 / Exercise 6
Nutrition Therapy and Pathophysiology
Nelms/Sucher
Expert Verified
The Manager and his Environmenti. Constraints imposed by organizational charters and guidelinesMany organizations such as government agencies, religious bodies and corporations have written documents which constitute corporate charters, by-laws, policies, rules, constitutions etc. These documents spell out what the organization can or cannot do and managers in these organizations are limited by what these documents say.ii. Constraint imposed by organizational policies, procedures, rules and strategiesThese predetermined plans place limits on what an organization can or cannot do e.g. policy specifying that all sales be to wholesalers tells managers that sales will not be made to ultimate consumers at all, or rules against members of the same family working in the same organization.iii. Constraints imposed by limited money and personnelNo organization has unlimited capital. Because of insufficient funds, managers may be unable to hire the best qualified people, purchase the best equipment and land and so forth. Therefore the organization will be restricted in what actions it can take. Managers may also be limited by the personnel (employees) within the organization who may not have the necessary skills or knowledge to carry out planned activities. Employees may also resist changes that affect them in the organization.iv. Constraints imposed by higher level managementPolicies, procedures and rules such as noted above are developed by higher level management. In addition higher level managers develop the strategies that direct the actions of other members of the organizations. The actions of higher management can therefore limit the actions of the lower level management.v. Constraints imposed by custom and culture.Custom is defined as long established, continuous, reasonable and constant practices considered as unwritten law and resting for authority on long consent. Custom defines the unique ways of how things have always been done in the organization.

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