Politically, this act was meant to undermine the autonomy and authority of American political institutions. The Restraining Act The full implications of Townshend’s policies became clear in New York, where the assembly refused to comply with the Quartering Act of 1765. Soon after however, they offered limited assistance to soldiers, and in response to this Townshend demanded full compliance, threatening to impose a special duty on New York’s imports and exports if they did not. In summary, the Restraining Act stated that Parliament could suspend colonial legislature if they did not follow tax legislations or do as Parliament ordered them too. A British law passed by Parliament at the request of General Thomas Gage, the British military commander in America, that required colonial governments to provide barrack s and food for British troops. America Debates and Resists Again The Townshend Acts revived the constitutional debate over taxation. Some Americans, such as Benjamin Franklin, made a distinction between external and internal taxes, and that these newly levied internal taxes were not acceptable. The Second Boycott This new boycott of British goods occurred in response to the Townshend Acts, because the colonial legislatures believed they were designed to raise revenue, which meant they were taxes imposed without consent. This boycott discouraged the purchase of “foreign superfluities” and promoted the The Daughters of Liberty Produced “homespuns”, clothing that was produced in the colonies, for the colonies. Crucial to the nonimportation movements, because it allowed the mobilization of women in boycotts against the British. Britain Responds When letters from the Massachusetts House opposing the Townshend duties reached London, they responded by sending General Thomas Gage and four
What was the Non-importation? Why did it succeed? Why was sovereignty debated? Committees of Correspondence What was the Road to independence? Why was the compromise ignored? thousand British troops to Boston. They were determined to bring the rebellious New Englanders to their knees – in 1765, American resistance to taxation had provoked a parliamentary debate; in 1768, it produced a plan for military coercion. Lord North Compromises, 1770 He used his new position to increase his attacks on government corruption in Great Britain. Non-importation Succeeds Normally, the colonists had a trade deficit of £500,000; but in 1768, they imported less from Britain, cutting the deficit to £230,000. By 1769, the boycott of British goods, couple with the colonies’ staple exports and shipping services to overseas markets, had yielded a balance-of- payments surplus of £816,000. Lord North succeeds as British Prime Minister, sets out to save the empire by designing new compromises. Lord North convinces Parliament to repeal most of the Townshend duties; however he retained the tax on tea as a symbol of Parliament’s supremacy. In response to Lord North’s actions, the colonists ended the boycott of British goods.