anomalies as bone and limb deformities deafness cardiac defects prematurely and

Anomalies as bone and limb deformities deafness

This preview shows page 41 - 44 out of 119 pages.

anomalies as bone and limb deformities, deafness, cardiac defects, prematurely and metabolic abnormalities d.Avoid the use of self medications and prescribed medication, drugs with suspected toxicity should be avoided e.When doctors prescribe a drug for necessary conditions, it should be used at a small dose and for the shortest time Caffeine a.Pregnant women in taking common sources of caffeine including coffee, tea, colas and chocolate should use good judgment in moderating or limiting their caffeine intake b.Consuming the same daily caffeine intake as before pregnancy results in a much higher blood pressure level c.Caffeine causes an increased production of Adrenaline and the cease of noradrenalin production. These hormones constrict peripheral blood vessels, including those of the uterus, this can result in a temporary decrease in the oxygen available to the fetus Smoking a.Women who smoke, should stop smoking during pregnancy, or if they cannot, then smoking must at least be reduced
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41b.Decreasing smoking during pregnancy will result in a better fetal outcome c.The specific mechanism by which smoking affects the fetus is not known. However, smoking appears to decrease placental blood flow and plasma volume d.Smoking may interfere with maternal absorption or metabolism of calcium, vitamins A, B, B6, B12 and vitamin C e.Mothers who smoke are in an increased risk of spontaneous abortion, placenta previa, low birth weight, anemic babies, and babies addicted to cigarettes Next visit a.Regular visits during pregnancy to provide continued monitoring of maternal and fetal status b.In the 1sttrimester, visits should be every 4 weeks for the first 28 weeks of gestation c.Do not forget the date of the next visit Warning signs & symptomsWomen should always report any of the following signs and symptoms to the doctor in the first trimester:a.Persistent nausea or fainting b.Pain in the abdomen and in the back c.Persistent loss of appetite d.Painful, burning sensation upon urination e.Dizziness Health education during the second trimester (4-6 months) Nutrition a.Good nutrition is essential during the whole pregnancy b.The quality of food is more important than the quantity c.A pregnant woman should be provided with all essential nutrients, while avoiding gaining weight d.Selecting food with high nutritive value and avoiding junk food Hygiene a.Daily hygiene routine is maintained
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42b.Sweat glands are more active and frequent baths are necessary c.If there is an increase in vaginal discharge, then local cleansing is essential d.Avoid douching unless advised by a doctor Dental care a.Dental examination is necessary early in pregnancy b.Regular visits to the dentist as ordered c.An adequate diet and care of the gum d.Consult a doctor before any dental works is done Breast care a.Clean daily with warm water, avoiding soap, which causes dryness and cracking of the nipple and areolar area b.Rub the nipples gently and apply cold cream for dryness c.
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