Small runners have to work harder to move fast As velocity increases more

Small runners have to work harder to move fast as

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Small runners have to work harder to move fast As velocity increases, more energy can go towards generating forward motion
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© 2019 Cost of Transport From before: Energy required to move 1 unit mass 1 unit distance What is the efficient speed to travel some distance? e.g. Should you run or walk to Mac Hall to get food? Minimize : mass-specific MR vs velocity Minimize : Energy * time -1 * mass -1 Distance * time -1 Units of CoT : E*mass -1 *dist -1 e.g. kJ*kg -1 *km -1 Velocity MS MR
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© 2019 Running – MR and CoT Mass- specific MR CoT Velocity
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© 2019 Willmer 1999 Running – Effect of Mass on CoT
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© 2019 Swimming
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© 2019 Forces acting on a swimmer Ono & Poss (1982) Gravity Buoyancy Drag Thrust
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© 2019 Life is a Drag Viscous forces Skin friction drag Inertial forces Pressure drag - are-swimming-fast-5037x3322_31373.jpg bacterium.jpg Skin friction drag Pressure drag Skin friction drag Pressure drag
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© 2019 How to minimize drag in water: Shape! Drag is minimized at d/l ~0.25 McMahon & Bonner (1983) Fast-swimmers adopt drag-minimizing shapes
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© 2019 Mass and Velocity Affect Swimmers Swimmers must work hard to overcome inertia in a viscous environment
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  • Spring '14
  • Topic 10, Locomotion, Reid

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