Clinical psychology is yet another notable subfield of modern psy- chology. It blends scientific training and research with clinical practice, treating patients suffering from addictions, depression, eating disor- ders, mental disabilities, and the like. Clinical psychology often over- laps with physiology and clinical medicine, as does neuropsychology, which studies the relationship between the brain and mental life with its own scientific orientation and research methods, notably animal experimentation. With roots in several of these antecedent areas, cognitive psychology is a major but relatively new branch of psychology that arose in the 1960 s and 1970 s, partly as a response to behaviorism. With its empha- sis on cognition and the active role of the intellect in shaping psycho- logical experience, cognitive psychology has become increasingly pop- ular among professionals and amateurs alike, and the subfield today exists at the intersection of linguistics, artificial intelligence, computer science, information processing, mathematical modeling, neuropsy- chology, neurophysiology, brain imaging techniques, and philosophy. The therapeutic dimension of cognitive psychology holds that irrational thinking is the source of most mental illness, and it seeks to substitute more realistic and less distorted ideas in patients as a means of chang- ing feelings and behaviors. Drug therapy, based on sophisticated re- search on brain chemistry, often accompanies such treatment. Together, cognitive therapy and drug treatments are now the favorite options of insurance companies and the mental health establishment. To this already long list we might add developmental psychology, which investigates the cognitive and emotional trajectories of the indi- vidual from the womb to the tomb, and social psychology, which is concerned with such cultural and social issues as racism, gender, vio- lence, and group behavior in general. In 2004 the American Psycholog- ical Association incorporated fifty-three different divisions into its organization, including sports psychology, gerontological psychology, and peace psychology. Research in each of these fields has brought in- sights to science and no small solace to humanity, but, to repeat the main point, achievements in psychology in the last century have sprung from and embody a diversity of theoretical perspectives, not a single, agreed-upon conceptual frame guiding research, as is the case with more mature scientific disciplines. The science of psychology is immensely popular. Approximately 6 percent of all bachelor’s degrees and fully 19 percent of science and engineering undergraduate degrees awarded in the 1990 s went to undergraduate majors in psychology. From 1968 to 2001 the number of undergraduate psychology majors increased over 300 percent, the THE NEW ARISTOTELIANS 387
number of master’s degrees in psychology jumped over 400 percent, and the number of Ph.D.s in psychology expanded by over 350 per- cent. In 2001 over 98 , 000 psychologists held 15 percent of all science and engineering Ph.D.s, with most of these individuals (
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