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married women enrolled at your college. This means that you can generalize your findings to allthe married women students on your campus, even if they were not included in your sample.oWhat if you want to know only about certain subgroups, such as freshmen and seniors? You could use a stratified random sample. You would need a list of the freshmen and senior married women. Then, using random numbers, you would select a sample from each group. This would allow you to generalize to all the freshmen and senior married women at your college, but you would not be able todraw any conclusions about the sophomores or juniors.oNo matter what research method you use, you will need a yardstick for comparingyour findings. To do this, you will want to know what “average” is in your research.22
How to Read a Table:Tables summarize information. Because sociological findings are often presented in tables, it is important to understand how to read them. Tables contain six elements: title, headnote, headings, columns, rows, and source. When you understand how these elements fit together, you know how to read a table.1.The title states the topic. It is located at the top of the table. What is the title of this table? Please determine your answer before looking at the correct answer at the bottom of this page.2.The headnote is not always included in a table. When it is, it is located just below the title. Its purpose is to give more detailed information about how the data were collected or how data are presented in the table. What are the first eight words of the headnote of this table?3.The headings tell what kind of information is contained in the table. There are three headings in this table. What are they? In the second heading, what does n = 25 mean?4.The columns present information arranged vertically. What is the fourth number in the second column and the second number in the third column?5.The rows present information arranged horizontally. In the fourth row, which husbands are more likely to have less education than their wives?6.The source of a table, usually listed at the bottom, provides information on where the data in the table originated. Often, as in this instance, the information is specific enough for you to consult the original source. What is the source for this table?Answers: 1.Comparing Violent and Nonviolent Husbands2.Based on interviews with 150 husbands and wives3.Husband’s Achievement and Job Satisfaction, Violent Husbands, Nonviolent Husbands. The n is an abbreviation for number, and n = 25 means that 25 violent husbands were in the sample.4.56%, 18%5.Violent Husbands6.A 1975 article by O’Brien (listed in the References section of this text).Three Ways to Measure “Average”:The Mean:oThe term averageseems clear enough. As you learned in grade school, to find theaverage you add a group of numbers and then divide the total by the number of cases that you added.The Median:oTo compute the second average, the median,first arrange the cases in order from the highest to either the lowest or the lowest to the highest.The Mode:oThe third measure of average, the mode,is simply the cases that occur the most often.Asking Neutral Questions:23