-Changes in human brain over evolution (size, connectivity, etc.) -Major divisions of the nervous system and their roles- Gross anatomy of the brain: o Hemispheres and lobes o Major gyri and sulci o Major functional organization: visual cortex, motor cortex, areas for verbal behaviour, various structures such as thalamus and hypothalamus, cerebellum, structures in brain stem, etc. - Different ways of sectioning the brain: coronal, sagittal, horizontal
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- Case of Phineas Gage and what it told us about the prefrontal cortex -Verbal behaviour in the brain – left lateralized – Broca’s area (production) and Wernicke’s area (comprehension)- Case study of Charles Whitman (Texas sniper – amygdala tumour)- Case study of Henry Molaison (epileptic, hippocampal removal – anterograde amnesia) - Neuronso Anatomy – parts and their functions o State of a neuron at rest The resting potential Relative concentrations of sodium and potassium inside and out o Action potential How it starts and how it’s propagated down the axon (in myelinated and non-myelinated axons) The role of the myelin sheath and how it affects signal transmissionThe all or none law; but then how is strength of a signal communicated? Number of neurons firingRate of firing o The synapseTransmission of the signal across the gap using ‘chemical messengers’ (neurotransmitters, or NTs)Steps in synaptic transmission (action potential arrives, vesicles fuse with membrane, NT released, etc.)Two effects of binding: excitatory (cell becomes less negative inside, more likely to fire) and inhibitory (cell becomes more negative inside, less likely to fire)
- Major NTs: GABA, glutamate, etc., and their major functions - Drugs o How they have effects in the nervous system (mostly at the synapse) o Agonism vs antagonism - Research methods in brain researcho Lesioningo Electrical stimulation of brain (ESB) – also single-cell recording and stimulation deliberate and ‘experiments of nature’ o EEG and ERP o TMSo CT scanning (computerized tomography) – not in text X-rays taken from various angles Computer used to combine them into a an image of a slice of brain. o MRI (structural) o Hemodynamic methods PET fMRI Caution – risk of Type 1 error (false positives) - Split brain patients o What it meanso Effects (e.g., with regard to perceiving and naming objects) Chapter 5: Body rhythms and mental states - Consciousness definition - Biological rhythmso Definition and exampleso Circadian rhythms definition o Why did they evolve? Adaptationo Entrainmento Chronobiology – what it is, and experimentso Biological clock: Brain areas and hormones involved?o Desynchronization of rhythms – causes and effects o Chronotypes – lark and owlo Mood effects: SAD and PMS
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- Sleep and dreamingo Different stages of sleep and associated brain wave patterns (EEG) – frequency and amplitude o REM sleep characteristicso Differences in sleep stages across ages – old vs young o Theories regardingthe purpose/function of sleep
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