Promoters promoters are sequences that tell rna

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- Promoters Promoters are Sequences that tell RNA Polymerase where to attach to begin transcribing a Gene (or Genes). - Operators Operators are Sequences to which Repressor Molecules bind to prevent RNA Polymerase from attaching to a Promoter and hence to prevent transcription of a Gene (or Genes). • 01% consists of Genes for tRNA and rRNA Approximately 85% of RNA is rRNA (Ribosomal RNA); 10% is tRNA (Transfer RNA) and 05% is mRNA (Messenger RNA). The Collision of the Discovery of these “Genes” with Beadle and Tatum ʼ s One Gene- One Enzyme Hypothesis is the Reason we ʼ re stuck with the awkward Term ORF. • 0.5% consists of Non-Coding Repetitive Sequences
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Bacterial Genetics Page 3 Flexible Gene Pool We ʼ ll start with the Smallest and work our Way up to the Largest. There ʼ s a natural Progression here. Insertion Sequences encode for the Gene that lets them move around inside the Bacterial Chromosome. Transposons add other Genes. Plasmids add the Ability to exist autonomously in the Cytoplasm, to integrate and become a Part of the Chromosome and we ʼ ll see later, to get the Bacterium to squirt them into other Bacteria. Bacteriophage can be considered the Ultimate Autonomous Plasmid. Transposable Elements (L= position across) Transposable Elements are small Pieces of DNA that can move from Place to Place within the Chromosome. Barbara McClintock discovered the first Transposable Elements (in Corn) in the 1940s. Not the least of McClintock ʼ s Problems throughout the 1940s and 1950s was the Proximity of her Corn Plots to the Outfield of the Cold Spring Harbor Softball Field. Examples Insertion Sequences: • Contain the Gene for Transposase (the Enzyme that inserts Transposable Elements) IS2 (Insertion Sequence 2) GATTACA CGGTC.Transposase.CTGGCGATTACA CTAATCTGCCAG ............. GACCGCTAATGT - Flanked by Inverted Repeats (IR) [ CGGTC..CTGGC ] - IR are flanked by Direct Repeats (DR) [ GATTACA..GATTACA ] Direct Repeats are duplicated Target Sites. Transposons • Contain the Gene for Transposase • Contain at least one other Gene in addition to Transposase Tn3 (Transposon 3) GATTACA CGGTC.Transposase.Resolvase. β -Lactamase . CTGGCGATTACA CTAATCTGCCAG ................................... GACCGCTAATGT - Flanked by Inverted Repeats (IR) [ CGGTC..CTGGC ] - IR are flanked by Direct Repeats [ GATTACA..GATTACA ] Transposons frequently a Gene for Antibiotic Resistance, which can be ever so Useful to the Bacterium. If you have to crash on a Friend ʼ s Couch for a few Weeks, you ʼ ll be much more welcome if happen to own and bring along a 60 Inch Panasonic Plasma HDTV.
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Bacterial Genetics Page 4 Plasmids Plasmids are small, circular DNA Molecules that can exist independently from the Bacterial Chromosome while giving the Host Bacterium unique Functions • Many Plasmids can integrate into the Chromosome - Integration is the Enzyme-Mediated incorporation of a Plasmid into the Bacterial Chromosome - Excision is the Enzyme-Mediated escape of a Plasmid from the Bacterial Chromosome Plasmids can incorporate themselves into the Genome and they can pull themselves out of the Genome. They can also go from one Bacterium to
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