Human pair bonds for mating are more exclusive and

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Human pair bonds for mating are more exclusive and durable than those of chimps Humans have exogamy and kinship systems and maintain lifelong ties with sons and daughters
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UNIVERSALITY, GENERALITY, AND PARTICULARITY Universal : something that exists in every culture Generality : culture pattern or trait that exists in some but not all societies Particularity : distinctive or unique culture trait, pattern, or integration
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UNIVERSALS AND GENERALITIES Biologically based universals: long period of infant dependency, year-round sexuality, and a complex brain that enables the use of symbols, languages, and tools Among the social universals: life in groups and in some kind of family
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UNIVERSALS AND GENERALITIES Generalities occur in certain times and places but not in all cultures Nuclear family, a kinship group consisting of parents and children Societies can share the same beliefs and customs, such as a shared language, through: Cultural borrowing (diffusion) Inheritance from a common cultural ancestor Domination, as in colonial rule
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PARTICULARITY: PATTERNS OF CULTURE Cultural particularities, confined to a single place, culture, or society, are increasingly rare Cultural borrowing and exchanges that have accelerated with globalization Independent invention Cultures are nevertheless integrated and patterned differently and display tremendous variation and diversity
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CULTURE AND THE INDIVIDUAL: AGENCY AND PRACTICE Generations of anthropologists have theorized about the relationship between the “system” and the “individual” Culture is contested Culture is public and individual Day-to-day actions make and remake culture Practice theory : individuals within society have diverse motives
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LEVELS OF CULTURE National culture : cultural features shared by citizens of the same nation International culture : cultural traditions that extend beyond national boundaries Subcultures : different cultural traditions associated with subgroups in the same complex society
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Levels of Culture, with Examples from Sports and Foods LEVEL OF CULTURE SPORTS EXAMPLES FOOD EXAMPLES International Soccer, basketball Pizza National Monster-truck rallies Apple pie Subculture Bocci Big Joe Pork Barbeque (South Carolina)
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ETHNOCENTRISM, CULTURAL RELATIVISM, AND HUMAN RIGHTS Ethnocentrism : tendency to view one’s own culture as superior and to use one’s own standards and values in judging outsiders
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