Organic molecules broken down wo net oxidation b Lactic acid production muscles

Organic molecules broken down wo net oxidation b

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Organic molecules broken down w/o net oxidation b. Lactic acid production = muscles c. Ethanol production = yeast cells (shots, shots, shots) 48) What are the two general reasons for cell signaling? Explain a. Responding to changes in the environment i. Cellular response to changes in environment 1. Exposure to different temp, toxin, or nutrients causes cell to respond b. Cell-to-cell communication i. Sharing information to one another 1. Auxin accumulating and causing a plant shoot to bend toward light 49) Compare and contrast the ways cells communicate with each other a. Direct Intracellular Signaling i. Signals pass through a cell junction from the cytosol of one cell to adjacent cells b. Contact-Dependent Signaling i. Membrane-bound signals bind to receptors on adjacent cells c. Autocrine Signaling i. Cells release signals that affect themselves and nearby target cells d. Paracrine Signaling i. Cells release signals that affect nearby target cells e. Endocrine Signaling i. Cells release signals that travel long distances to affect target cells 50) Outline the process of cell signaling a. Three-stage process i. Receptor activation 1. Signaling molecule binds to receptor of target cell a. Causes a conformational change 2. Activated receptor initiates a response by causing changes in proteins that activates a signal transduction pathway ii. Signal transduction 1. Pathway is a group of proteins that convert an initial signal to a different signal inside the cell a. Some receptors are intracellular and do not activate a signal transduction pathway iii. Cellular response 1. Categories of proteins that are controlled by cell signaling: a. Enzymes b. Structural proteins
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c. Transcription factors 51) Explain how a signaling molecule activates a receptor a. A signaling molecule (ligand) binds noncovalently to the receptor with a high degree of specificity b. Ligand and receptor collide in the correct orientation with enough energy i. Forms ligand receptor complex 52) Identify the three types of cell surface receptors Enzyme linked receptors a. i. Catalytic receptor- transmembrane receptor 1. Protein kinases that phosphorylate proteins 2. Extracellular ligand causes enzymatic activity on the intracellular side 3. Most human hormones bind b. G-Protein coupled receptors i. Largest and most diverse protein ii. Interact with G proteins to initiate a cellular response iii. Act like an inbox for messages in the form of light energy, peptides, lipids, sugars, and proteins c. Ligand gated ion channels i. Allow the flow of ions across the plasma membrane ii. Ion channels that can open in response to the binding of a ligand iii. Hydrophilic channel through the middle 53) Describe intracellular receptors (estrogen receptors) a. Estrogen receptors i. Found inside cellular matrix ii. Target for osteoporosis, breast cancer, and other endocrine female disorders 54) Describe signal transduction pathways and how those pathways lead to a cellular response a. Signaling pathways i. Influence whether or not a cell divides ii.
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  • Fall '19
  • Enzyme, Adenosine triphosphate

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