Organic molecules broken down w/o net oxidationb.Lactic acid production = musclesc.Ethanol production = yeast cells (shots, shots, shots)48) What are the two general reasons for cell signaling? Explain a.Responding to changes in the environmenti.Cellular response to changes in environment1.Exposure to different temp, toxin, or nutrients causes cell to respondb.Cell-to-cell communicationi.Sharing information to one another1.Auxin accumulating and causing a plant shoot to bend toward light49) Compare and contrast the ways cells communicate with each other a.Direct Intracellular Signalingi.Signals pass through a cell junction from the cytosol of one cell to adjacent cellsb.Contact-Dependent Signalingi.Membrane-bound signals bind to receptors on adjacent cellsc.Autocrine Signalingi.Cells release signals that affect themselves and nearby target cellsd.Paracrine Signalingi.Cells release signals that affect nearby target cellse.Endocrine Signalingi.Cells release signals that travel long distances to affect target cells50) Outline the process of cell signalinga.Three-stage processi.Receptor activation1.Signaling molecule binds to receptor of target cella.Causes a conformational change2.Activated receptor initiates a response by causing changes in proteins that activates a signal transduction pathwayii.Signal transduction1.Pathway is a group of proteins that convert an initial signal to a different signal inside the cella.Some receptors are intracellular and do not activate a signal transduction pathwayiii.Cellular response1.Categories of proteins that are controlled by cell signaling:a.Enzymesb.Structural proteins
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c.Transcription factors51) Explain how a signaling molecule activates a receptor a.A signaling molecule (ligand) binds noncovalently to the receptor with a high degree of specificityb.Ligand and receptor collide in the correct orientation with enough energyi.Forms ligand receptor complex52) Identify the three types of cell surface receptors Enzyme linked receptorsa.i.Catalytic receptor- transmembrane receptor1.Protein kinases that phosphorylate proteins2.Extracellular ligand causes enzymatic activity on the intracellular side3.Most human hormones bind b.G-Protein coupled receptorsi.Largest and most diverse proteinii.Interact with G proteins to initiate a cellular responseiii.Act like an inbox for messages in the form of light energy, peptides, lipids, sugars, and proteinsc.Ligand gated ion channelsi.Allow the flow of ions across the plasma membraneii.Ion channels that can open in response to the binding of a ligandiii.Hydrophilic channel through the middle53) Describe intracellular receptors (estrogen receptors) a.Estrogen receptorsi.Found inside cellular matrixii.Target for osteoporosis, breast cancer, and other endocrine female disorders54) Describe signal transduction pathways and how those pathways lead to a cellular responsea.Signaling pathways i.Influence whether or not a cell dividesii.
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