Prohibition when the prohibition of the sale and

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Prohibition– When the prohibition of the sale and manufacture of alcohol went into effect in January 1920, it had the support of most members of the middle class and most of those who considered themselves progressives. Within a year, however, it had become clear that the “noble experiment,” as its defenders called it, was not working well. Prohibition did substantially reducedrinking, at least in some regions of the country. But it also produced conspicuous and growing violations that made the law an almost immediate source of disillusionment and controversy. Thefederal government hired only 1,500 agents to enforce prohibition laws, and in many places they
received little help from local police. Before long, it was almost as easy to acquire illegal alcoholin much of the country as it had once been to acquire legal alcohol.National Origins Act– In 1921, Congress passed an emergency immigration act, establishing a quota system by which annual immigration from any country could not exceed 3 percent of the number of persons of that nationality who had been in the United States in 1910. Th e new law cut immigration from 800,000 to 300,000 in any single year, but nativists remained unsatisfied and pushed for a harsher law. The National Origins Act of 1924 strengthened the exclusionist provision of the 1921 law. It banned immigration from east Asia entirely. That provision deeply angered the Japanese, who understood that they were the principal target; Chinese immigration had been illegal since 1882. The law also reduced the quota for Europeans from 3 percent to 2 percent. The quota would be based, moreover, not on the 1910 census, but on the census of 1890,a year in which there had been many fewer southern and eastern Europeans in the country.William J. Simmons– IN 1915, another group of white souterners met on Stone Mountain near Atlanta and established a new version of the Ku Klux Klan. At first the new Klan , like the old, was largely concerned with intimidating African Americans, who, according to Klan leader William J. Simmons were becoming insubordinate. And at first it remained small, obscure, and almost entirely southern.Traditional Values– What the klan feared, it soon became clear, was not simply “foreign” or “racially impure” groups; it was anyone who posed a challenge to “traditional values,” as the Klan defined them. Klansmen persecuted not only immigrants and African Americans, but also those white Protestants they considered guilty of irreligion, sexual promiscuity, or drunkenness. The Klan worked to enforce prohibition; it attempted to institute compulsory bible reading in schools; it worked to punish divorce.
Fundamentalists– Another bitter cultural controversy of the 1920’s challenged the place of religion in contemporary society. By 1921, American Protestantism was divided into two warringcamps. On one side stood the modernists: mostly urban, middle-class people who had attempted to adapt religion to the teachings of science and to the realities of their modern secular society.

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