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Spontaneous false memory.In our example of eating hotdogs and drinking milk, suppose that your memory errors werepursuant to recall and recognition probes such as: What did you eatat the game? Did you eat a hot dog at the game? What did youdrink at lunch? Did you drink a glass of milk at lunch? Apparently,such errors must be attributable to spontaneous, endogenous dis-tortion processes that are a normal part of how episodic memoryoperates; that is, they are natural concomitants of trying to remem-ber familiar events that fit with the gist of events that were actuallyexperienced.Over the decades, these spontaneous false memories have beenmeasured with materials as varied as narratives (Bartlett, 1932),This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.1316BOOKBINDER AND BRAINERD
Table 1Overview of Studies With Effect SizesStudynParadigmPopulationType of testGroupsMeanComparisonCohen’sdBudson et al. (2006)58DRMYounger adultsRecognitionNegative.37.08Neutral.39Older adultsRecognitionNegative.49.11Neutral.46Adults with ADRecognitionNegative.63.18Neutral.68Howe, Toth, and Cicchetti(2011)284DRMMaltx 6–9 yosRecallNegative.174.34Neutral.11Maltx 10–12 yosRecallNegative.1510.38Neutral.10Non-maltx 6–9 yosRecallNegative.164.06Neutral.11Non-maltx 10–12 yosRecallNegative.1410.60Neutral.10El Sharkawy et al. (2008)32DRMYoung adultsRecognitionNegative7.88.67Neutral6.56Howe et al. (2010; Exp.1)40DRMYoung adultsRecognitionNegative.671.28Neutral.51RecallNegative.271.44Neutral.40Howe et al. (2010; Exp.2)60DRMChildrenRecognitionNegative.67.45Neutral.59RecallNegative.23.73Neutral.34Howe et al. (2010; Exp.3)60DRMYoung adultsDelayed recallNegative.20.95Neutral.30Howe et al. (2010; Exp.4)30DRM5 & 8 yosDelayed recallNegative.101.82Neutral.25Howe et al. (2010; Exp.5)80DRM7 & 11 yosDelayed recallNegative.20.77Neutral.31Dehon et al. (2010; Exp1)36DRMYoung adultsRecognitionNegative.42Neg vs. neu.71Positive.60Pos vs. neu.77Neutral.59Dehon et al. (2010; Exp2)54DRMYoung adultsRecallNegative.37Neg vs. neu.70Positive.39Pos vs. neu.81Neutral.19Gallo, Foster, andJohnson, (2009)24Pictures with labelsYounger and olderadultsRecognitionNegative.14Pos vs. neu.82Positive.18Neg vs. neu.70Neutral.09Pos vs. neg.65Choi et al. (2013;Exp. 2)48Pictures withthematic labelsYoung adultsRecognitionNegative.25Negpos vs. neu1.41Positive.30Neutral.25Bookbinder & Brainerd(2016)68Categorized picturesYoung adultsRecognitionImmediateImmediate testNegative.67Neg vs. pos2.35Positive.61Pos vs. neu3.14Neutral.53Delay testNeg vs. pos4.00DelayNeu vs. pos3.00(table continues)This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers.