three primary types of protective factors •positive individual attributes•supportive family environment •people outside the family
The Concept of Childhood•Contemporary Western culture: “child-centered”
The Concept of Childhood•Antiquity – infanticide–Ancient Roman texts refer to infanticide as an accepted practice, and the only way people could control the size of their families in a time before reliable contraception–outlawed in 4thcentury–Common crime after that
6th - 15th centuriesMedieval period•Preformationism: children seen as little adults.•Childhood is not a unique phase.•Children were cared for until they could begin caring for themselves, around 7 years old.•Children treated as adults (e.g. their clothing,worked at adult jobs, could be married, were made into kings, were imprisoned or hanged as adults.)
16th CenturyReformation period•Puritan religion influenced how children were viewed.•Children were born evil, and must be civilized. •A goal emerged to raise children effectively. •Special books were designed for children.
St. Augustine•Augustine, (354-430AD) credited with formulating the concept of original sin, held that Adam's fall corrupted man, making the human race a mass of sin.