Measurements often include the words more or less

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Income Tax Fundamentals 2020
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Chapter 4 / Exercise 15
Income Tax Fundamentals 2020
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Measurements often include the words “more or less” because the location of the monuments is more important than the distances between them. Because monu- ments can be moved, surveyors give their final metes-and-bounds reference in terms of cardinal points and distance. They include the statement “to the point of beginning (POB)” to ensure closure and to remove questions if an error in footage prevents closure. An example of a historical metes-and-bounds description of a parcel of land (see Figure 5.3) follows: A tract of land located in Red Skull, Boone County, Virginia, described as fol- lows: Beginning at the intersection of the east line of Jones Road and the south line of Skull Drive; then east along the south line of Skull Drive 200 feet; then south 15° east 216.5 feet, more or less, to the center thread of Red Skull Creek then northwesterly along the center line of said creek to its intersection with the east line of Jones Road; then north 105 feet, more or less, along the east line of Jones Road to the point of beginning.
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Income Tax Fundamentals 2020
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Chapter 4 / Exercise 15
Income Tax Fundamentals 2020
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96 Texas Law of Contracts Second Edition Jones Rd. Point of Beginning Skull Dr. 105' 216.5' 200' Red Skull Creek N F I G U R E 5.3 Metes-and-Bounds Tract Rectangular Survey System The rectangular survey system , sometimes called the government survey system, was established by Congress in 1785 to standardize the description of land acquired by the newly formed federal govern- ment. By dividing the land into rectangles, the survey provided land descriptions by describing the rectangle(s) in which the land was located. The system is based on two sets of intersecting lines: principal meridians and base lines. The principal meridians run north and south, and the base lines run east and west. Both are located by reference to degrees of longitude and latitude. Each principal meridian has a name or number and is crossed by a base line. Each principal meridian and its corresponding base line are used to survey a definite area of land, indicated on the map by boundary lines. There are 37 principal meridians in the United States. The land on either side of a principal meridian is divided into six-mile-wide strips by lines that run north and south, parallel to the meridian. These north-south strips of land are called ranges (see Figure 5.4). They are designated by consecu- tive numbers east or west of the principal meridian. For example, Range 3 East would be a strip of land between 12 and 18 miles east of its principal meridian. N Base Line Range Lines Principal Meridian F I G U R E 5.4 Range Lines Lines running east and west, parallel to the base line and six miles apart, are called township lines (see Figure 5.5). They form strips of land called township tiers . These township tiers are designated by consecutive numbers north or south of the base line. For example, the strip of land between 6 and 12 miles north of a base line is Township 2 North.

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