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The soil stack pipe carries waste from toilets to the house trap (if one is installed) and there connects to the sewer line extending outside the building and on to a public sewer or private septic system. The soil stack is the large-diameter main vertical waste pipe or building drain, or vertical portion of the "main drain" in the building. The soil stack pipe is normally extended outdoors above the building roof. Other main building drain piping sections that slope closer to horizontal are connected to the soil stack but move waste horizontally where needed in a building. The waste stack pipe shown in the sketch refers to any other vertical drain piping in the building that does not carry soil (sewage) from a sanitary fixture (toilet). Typically waste stack piping carries drainage away from sinks, tubs, and showers.
How far can the plumbing vent piping be located from a plumbing fixture?
Vent Pipe Distances Drain Pipe Size Vent Pipe Size Distance  1-1/4" dia 1-1/4" dia 2-1/2 feet 1-1/2" dia 1-1/4" dia 3-1/2 feet 2" dia 1-1/2" dia 5 feet 3" dia 2" dia 6 feet 4" dia 3" dia 10 feet  minimum diameter of the vent pipe  Critical distance between the plumbing fixture and the vent pipe. You can see that for vent pipe diameters under 4" you need to be vigilant about locating a plumbing fixture too far from its vent pipe/stack
Plumbing Drain Pipe Sizes Drain Pipe Diameter Vertical Drain Pipe, Maximum Number of Fixtures Horizontal Drain, Maximum Number of Fixtures 1-1/4" dia 1 1 1-1/2" dia 2 1 (or 2 sinks) 2" diam 16 8 2-1/2" dia 32 14 3" diam 48 35 4" diam 256 216
Individual Appliance, Appurtenance or Fixture Minimum Size Drainage Fixture Unit Values (DFU)(inch)Private Installations