Personality structure personality structure contd

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Personality Structure Personality Structure (cont’d) (cont’d) Instincts give rise to thoughts and actions and fuel their expression. Dominant human instincts: Sex and aggression Freud: Although most impulses are hidden from consciousness, they determine human actions.
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Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanisms Protect the individual from anxiety Operate unconsciously Distort reality It’s normal to use some strategies to reduce anxiety, but maladaptive when overused.
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Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanisms
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Criticisms of Psychodynamic Models Criticisms of Psychodynamic Models Samples that Freud used were narrow in scope and types of individuals examined. The methods that he used to formulate his theory relied too heavily on anecdotal or case study approaches. Theories on female sexuality and personality seen as grounded in sexist and biased interpretations of female behavior. Such theories have little support empirically and neglect the important impact of sociocultural factors. Psychoanalytic therapy has limited application in that it seems most appropriate for well-educated, verbal, clients from middle class or upper class backgrounds.
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Classical Conditioning Model Classical Conditioning Model Classical conditioning : Learning principle in which involuntary responses to stimuli are learned through association Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) : Elicits an unconditioned response Unconditioned response (UCR) : The unlearned response made to an unconditioned stimulus
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Classical Conditioning Model Classical Conditioning Model (cont’d) (cont’d) Conditioned stimulus (CS) : Neutral stimulus acquires some properties of another stimulus with which it is paired Conditioned response (CR) : The learned response made to a previously neutral stimulus that has acquired some properties of another stimulus with which it was paired
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Classical Conditioning in Classical Conditioning in Psychopathology Psychopathology John B. Watson: Demonstrated acquisition of a phobia (exaggerated, seemingly illogical fear) using Classical conditioning paradigm Classical conditioning helps explain acquisition of phobias, unusual sexual attractions, and other extreme emotional reactions. Classical conditioning serves as a basis for effective treatment techniques, although most human behaviors are more active and voluntary.
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The Operant Conditioning Model The Operant Conditioning Model Operant behavior : A voluntary and controllable behavior that “operates” on an individual’s environment Operant conditioning : Voluntary behaviors are controlled by the consequences that follow them. Law of effect : Edward Thorndike noticed that behaviors followed by positive consequences are repeated. B. F. Skinner called this “reinforcement.”
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The Operant Conditioning Model The Operant Conditioning Model (cont’d) (cont’d) Differs from classical conditioning: Operant conditioning is linked to voluntary, not involuntary, behaviors.
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