2 1882-made protectorate of England B. Sub Sahara: 1850s and 1860s:European explorers 1885: Berlin Congress. European powers decide on ‘rules’ for competing claims in occupation of effect on African people and nations C. Settler Colonies: south Africa Presence of Dutch Boers (and African nations such as Zulu, Xhosa) -British takeover 1815. Boers move to interior, establish two republics. When gold and diamonds discovered, British capital comes in 1899: Anglo-Boer war 2)British in India: ( Model of formal colonial system) 3) China: ‘spheres of influence” China resistant to opening by West Manchu dynasty declining. Treaties signed: Hong Kong ceded to British; cities opened up to European trade; Brit and American gunboats patrol Yangtse River; Chinese forced to pay indemnities Other nations coming into other parts of China: Russians, Japan, France, Germans Get series of spheres of influence 4):“Open Door imperialism”: the US A. Open door in China Imperialism of free trade, (not sheltered markets or spheres of influence) B. Spanish-American War Spain on decline. 1890s rebel movements to oust Spaniards -Cuba: rebels led by Jose Marti. Much US investment in Cuban economy. Much US public sympathy for rebels.
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