To their charges the sole purpose of an arraignment

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to their charges. The sole purpose of an arraignment is for the defendant to enter their official plea to the charges. The four possible pleas that a defendant can enter are not guilty, not guilty by reason of insanity, nolo contendere (no contest), or guilty [1]. If the defendant enters a guilty plea, the court must then determine whether or not the plea was entered knowingly and voluntarily. Footnotes: [1] Joel Samaha, Criminal Procedure (9 ed. 2014). Model Short Answer: The initial appearance (arraignment) merely advises the person of the charges, their rights, and establishes bail or remands to custody. The Prelim is a mini-trial to prove there's enough probable cause to go to trial, and the Grand Jury is similar to that, but in secret, closed to the public, but the same goal; to determine whether there is enough probable cause to go forward with a trial. Comment: Well done! Please see the model answer and citation below: A first appearance is the first time a magistrates sees the person and at the person appearance there should be four tasks completed which is to inform the defendant(s) of the charges against them, inform the defendant(s) of their constitutional rights, set bail or detain the defendant, and to appoint attorneys for indigent defendants. [1] If it is a misdemeanor case the defendant will enter plead guilty or not guilty at their first appearance but more than likely it will be guilty. [1] In an arraignment it is usually the proceeding that orders a defendant or defendants to come to court and plead to the charges that are against them. [1] This is set aside for defendants with
felony charges against them. In a preliminary hearing it is where the prosecutor test their case out in front of a judge to see if they can get an indictment. [1] In a preliminary hearing it is held in public, it is an adversarial hearing, the judge presides, the judge determines the facts, and the defendant and their lawyers may attend. [1] In a preliminary trial there are two rules, prima facie case rule and directed verdict rule. [1] In prima facie case rule a judge can bind over a defendant if the prosecution shows enough evidence that could convict if the defense does not invalidate it at trial. [1] In directed verdict rule it is where judges look at the case as if it is a trial case and they are the ones deciding if there is enough believable evidence to be able to send the case to the jury. [1] In the grand jury review it screens criminal cases to protect individuals from malicious and unfounded prosecution which gives the grand jury review two functions that are to act as a sword to root out crime and corruption and as a shield to protect innocent people from unwarranted state intrusion. [1] A grand jury review is a secret proceeding, on the government’s case is presented, prosecutor presides, grand juror decides the facts, and the defendant nor their lawyers can attend. [1] Reference [1] Joel Samaha, Criminal Procedure, (8th ed. 2012)

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