Epinephelus coioides Al Marzouk 1999 and cod Ferguson et al 2004 Typically the

Epinephelus coioides al marzouk 1999 and cod ferguson

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(Epinephelus coioides) (Al-Marzouk, 1999) and cod (Ferguson et al, 2004). Typically, the disease manifests itself by the presence of petechial (pin-prick) haemorrhages in the skin of the mouth region, opercula and ventral side of the body. Haemorrhaging in the eye has been seen in infected Baltic herring (Lonnstrom et ai, 1994). Reddening of the fins (as with vibriosis or Aer. hydrophila infections) does not usually occur. Small petechial haemorrhages may develop in the peritoneum, and the liver may be pale and haemor- rhaged. The kidney may be soft and liquefying. Alternatively, in some cases of disease, there may be a dearth of internal signs of distress (Wakabayashi and Egusa, 1972). Winter disease of gilthead sea bream, in which affected fish displayed slow erratic swimming before sinking to the bottom of the water and dying, has been linked to this pathogen (Domenech et al, 1999). Other disease signs included abdom- inal distensions on some animals, haemorrhaged kidney, pale liver, and the intestine full of yellowish exudate. Low-level mortahties, albeit in the absence of external signs of disease, were reported in black-spot sea bream in Spain (Lopez-Romalde et ai, 2003). Pseudomonas chlororaphis In moribund fry, it was observed that symptoms included the presence of distended abdomen with ascitic fluid, and haemorrhages on the body surface (Hatai et al, 1975). Pseudomonas fluorescens It has been reported to cause disease in a wide range of fish species, including silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (Aristichthys nobilis) (Csaba et aL, 1981b; Markovic et aL, 1996), goldfish (Carassius auratus) (BuUock, 1965), tench {Tinea tinea) (Ahne et aL, 1982), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) (Bauer et aL, 1973), unnamed species of carp (Schaper- claus, 1959; Schaperclaus and Brauer, 1964; Heuschmann-Brunner, 1978) and rain- bow trout (Li and Flemming, 1967; Li and Traxler, 1971, Sakai et aL, 1989a). Generally, Ps. fluorescens is associated with fin or tail rot in which the infected area is eroded away (Schaperclaus, 1979). In tench fry, high mortahties (up to 90% of the population) have been reported, in which visual signs of disease included haemor- rhagic lesions on the skin and at the base of the fins. Ascitic fluid accumulated in the peritoneal cavity, and petechial haemorrhages were evident in the gills, kidney, liver and in the lumen and submucosa of the gut, i.e. a typical generalised bacterial septicaemia (Ahne et aL, 1982). Similar symptoms were apparent in silver carp
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40 Bacterial Fish Pathogens and bighead (Csaba et ai, 1981). Stress, including a lowered water temperature, may trigger outbreaks of disease (Markovic et ai, 1996). With rainbow trout the presence of ulcers at haemorrhages on the gills and fins were reported (Sakai et al, 1989a). Pseudomonas plecoglossicida A new bacterial disease emerged during the 1990s, and caused mass mortahties in pond-cultured ayu in Japan (Wakabayashi et ai, 1996). The term bacterial haemor- rhagic ascites is descriptive, with affected ayu displaying lesions in the gills, heart, intestine, kidney, liver and spleen. In particular, lesions in the spleen and haemato- poietic tissues were profound. Those in the kidney, liver and spleen were necrotic.
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