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the Graves speculum necessary to visualize the cervix and other internal structures of the pelvis.For women with significant pelvic or genital adipose tissue, lax vaginal walls, or grand multiparity, the large Graves speculum will not only allow the best visualization but will also be more comfortable.
#39. Sexually Transmitted InfectionsThe term sexually transmitted infection does not refer to any one specific disease, but rather refers to “a variety of clinical syndromes caused by pathogens that can be acquired and transmitted through sexual activity. Preventing, identifying, and managing STIs are essential components of women’s health care.Infection and the Causative Organism oChancroid- Haemophilus ducreyi oChlamydia- Chlamydia trachomatis oGenital herpes- Herpes simplex virus oGenital warts- Human papillomavirus (HPV) oGonorrhea- Neisseria gonorrhoeae oHepatitis- Hepatitis B virus (HBV), oHepatitis C- virus (HCV) oHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) oAcquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) oMolluscum contagiosum- Molluscum contagiosum virus oPubic lice- Phthirus pubis oSyphilis- Treponema pallidum oTrichomoniasis- Trichomonas vaginalisRisk Factors for Sexually Transmitted Infections and HIV oPrevious or current sexually transmitted infection oSex with multiple or new partners
oInitiating sex at a young age oUnprotected sex oSex with high-risk partners oSex with an partner who has HIV oSex in exchange for money or drugs oSex while intoxicated oIllegal drug use oInjection drug use oMental illness oAge < 25 years oLiving in an area with high sexually transmitted infection/HIV prevalenceoResiding in a detention or correctional facilityAll women who are sexually active should be screened for STI’s regularly through history, physical examination, and laboratory studies based on risk factors.