Jim crow apartheid 1865 1965 legal segregation of

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Until the 1970s, African Americans were still not full citizens. Jim Crow apartheid (1865-1965); legal segregation of schools until 1975 African Americans who moved north during the Great Migration typically worked in Northern factories or as housekeepers for 1/3 the pay of European-descent Americans o Were not treated the same as Irish, Polish, and Italian immigrants Companies used Blacks as “scabs”, strikebreakers and to drive wages down, inciting further racial tension o Racial tension driven by employment, housing, and school issues Most Blacks were denied all social benefits of the New Deal legislation until 1965 o Social security, minimum wage, overtime, unemployment insurance Black veterans were denied nearly all of the benefits of the GI Bill – post war social program for veterans helped create the middle class after WWII o Free university education – included tuition, books, etc. o Subsidized home mortgages – government would pay interest o Low interest business loans – helped poor people rise to middle class o 12 million white veterans were entitled to these benefits o “Demonization of government rhetoric” began in 1970s when Blacks became eligible to receive government programs and when the federal government began enforcing school integration People started calling out against the government Bertrand and Mulllainathan (2009) – many Americans today aren’t aware that discrimination in the work place still exists o Sent fictitious resumes in response to 1,300 help-wanted ads listed in the Boston Globe and the Chicago Tribune Resumes had same GPAs, work experience, credentials, etc. The only difference was the name of the person put stereotypically African names on half of the resumes and white names on the other half of resumes o Employers called back 50% more often for applicants with white- sounding names than for African American names o This study shows that African Americans have less opportunity in the work force Pager (2012): Princeton Study o Hired young men to pose as job applicants, assigning them resumes with equal levels of education and experience, and sending them to apply for real entry-level job openings all over the city of Milwaukee o White males with a “felony conviction” had a better chance of being called back for an interview than black males with no criminal record o This shows that it takes much longer for black individuals to find work Whites don’t want to hire black attorneys, black real estate agents, or black doctors
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Housing Discrimination : Until the 1960s, black residents in most cities were limited to narrow strips of land in which they could live. Landlords could charge triple the rent because they had a captive market o Many new neighborhoods that blacks were permitted to live in were Jewish Qualified Blacks were denied both private home mortgages and government- backed mortgages until the 1970s Government-backed mortgages were the key to the surge in US homeownership beginning in the 1940s Blacks relied on “contract mortgages” from real estate brokers. Most charged
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  • Fall '11
  • ChristinGlodek

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