Atonality is a term for music that avoids tonal

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Atonality is a term for music that avoids tonal centers. He later developed the twelve-tone method for the systematic ordering of the twelve notes of the chromatic scale.
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Tonal works Schoenberg’s earliest works are in the late Romantic style. Verklärte Nacht (Transfigured Night, 1899), a tone poem for string sextet Pelleas und Melisande (1902/3), a symphonic poem Gurrelieder (Songs of Gurre, 1900–1, orchestration 1911), a cantata He later turned away from gigantism and toward chamber music.
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Tonal works He applied the principal of developing variation to works like the String Quartet No. 1 in D Minor, Op. 7. The one-movement quartet combines an enlarged sonata form with the standard four movements of a classical work, similar to Liszt’s Piano Sonata in B Minor. This work exemplifies Schoenberg’s goal of continuing tradition but with a new voice. Nonrepetition is Schoenberg’s guiding principle.
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Atonal works Schoenberg began composing atonal music in 1908. He felt that the prolonged dissonances in recent music had weakened the pull of the tonic and exhausted tonality. “The emancipation of the dissonance” was Schoenberg’s concept of freeing dissonance from its need to resolve.
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Atonal works Schoenberg used three methods to create unity without tonality: Developing variation Integration of harmony and melody Chromatic saturation Gestures from tonal music are used to connect with traditions.
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The Book of the Hanging Gardens, Op. 15 (1908–9) Based on a poem by symbolist Stefan George, this is one of Schoenberg’s first atonal works. The sense of floating in harmonic space is well-suited to the vague eroticism of the poetry.
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Pitch-class sets Schoenberg’s atonal music can be analyzed in terms of pitch-class sets. Pitch-class: any note of a chromatic scale and its enharmonic equivalent Set: a collection of pitches that can be transposed, inverted, and arranged in any order to generate melodies and harmonies Chromatic saturation: all twelve pitch-classes within a segment of music
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Other atonal works from 1909 Three Piano Pieces, Op. 11 Five Orchestral Pieces, Op. 16 Erwartung (Expectation), Op. 17 A one-character opera for soprano Exaggerated gestures and unrelenting dissonance parallel expressionism (see In Context, p. 554 and Figure 22.10). The work is atonal and has no themes or reference to traditional forms.
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Pierrot lunaire (Moonstruck Pierrot, 1912) This cycle of twenty-one songs is based on German translations of the Belgian Albert Giraud’s symbolist poetry. Schoenberg scored the cycle for a woman’s voice and five performers who play eight instruments. The voice declaims the text in Sprechstimme (“speaking voice”), which approximates written pitches with gliding speech tones.
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Pierrot lunaire (Moonstruck Pierrot, 1912) Traditional elements Each poem has a refrain.
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  • Fall '07
  • Howell
  • Music, Arnold Schoenberg, Schoenberg, twelve-tone method

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