Psychosexual stages focus on body regions and

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Psychosexual Stages Focus on body regions and gratification at various ages Fixation Conflicts in a stage that retain focus on that stage throughout the life of an individual Overindulged or not enough gratification Oral Stage: birth – 18 months Pleasure centers around the mouth Can result in oral fixation: smoking, nail biting, thumb sucking, overtalking. Again! Fixated because they were over or under indulged at this stage. Anal Stage: 18–36 months Pleasure is derived from withholding and expelling feces Anal expulsive personality – sloppy, irresponsible, rebellious Anal retentive personality – stingy, rigid, excessively neat Phallic Stage: 3-6 years Pleasure focuses on the genitals Males:  Oedipus Complex Attracted to mom, hostile to dad Castration anxiety Fear of father
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Leads to identifying with the father “can’t beat him, join him?” Females: Electra complex Penis envy Blame mothers for their “castration” Leads to identifying with the mother Fixation may result in relationship issues Latency Stage: 6 – puberty Sexual interests are dormant Genital Stage: Puberty on Pleasure is focused on genitals again Maturing of sexual interests Fixation   more relationship issues Criticism of Freud Little empirical research to support his ideas Neo-Freudians Alfred Adler Striving for superiority – drive behind behavior is to overcome physical and  psychological deficiencies Inferiority Complex Need to dominate or upstage others as a way to compensate for feeling inferior Importance of birth order First-borns   feelings of superiority, nurturing, critical, strong need to be right Middle   motivated, cooperative, competitive
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Youngest   realistically ambitious, pampered, dependent Only children   mature, lack social interest, exaggerated sense of superiority Carl Jung Personal unconscious One’s repressed thoughts, feelings, motives Collective unconscious Consists of shared experiences of our ancestors Survival, instincts, higher power Archetypes Ancient images that result from common ancestral experiences Shadow – dark side of ourselves Anima – female part of the male personality Animus – male part of the female personality Human-Positive Psychology Optimistic about human nature Interested in realizing our full potential Carl Rogers People naturally strive for growth and fulfillment Unconditioned positive regard Able to respect and appreciate another person unconditionally Social-Cognitive Learning Theory Personality is the result of the interaction between a person and their social context Personal control – controlling or controlled by your environment External locus of control
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