Tajuk8_Ganjaran & Motivasi_Evolusi_Draft3_edited.pptx

But it also means we need to try to get a handle on

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we can trade in such a way that we are both happier as a result. But it also means we need to try to get a handle on the whole variety of needs and who has them in order to begin to understand how to design organizations that maximize productivity. 16
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CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Alderfer’s ERG Theory Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Self- Actualization Esteem Belongingness Safety Physiological Growth Existence Herzberg’s Theory Motivators Hygienes Need for Achievement Need for Power Need for Affiliation McClelland’s Learned Needs Relatedness 17
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MASLOW’S HIERARCHY Each individual has needs, or feelings of deficiency that drive their behaviour. Once a need is satisfied, then it is no longer motivating. Needs are in a hierarchy that an individual moves up as they satisfy levels of needs 18
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PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF CONTENT THEORIES People have different needs at different times Offer employees a choice of rewards -- a flexible reward system Do not rely too heavily on financial rewards they mainly address lower level needs 19
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THEORY MASLOW 20
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21
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NEED HOME JOB self-actualization education, religion, hobbies, personal growth training, advancement, growth, creativity esteem approval of family, friends, community recognition, high status, responsibilities belongingness family, friends, clubs teams, depts, co-workers, clients, supervisors, subordinates safety freedom from war, poison, violence work safety, job security, health insurance physiological food water sex Heat, air, base salary 22 Some of the instances, like "education" are actually satisfiers of the need.
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ALDERFER'S ERG THEORY Alderfer classifies needs into three categories, also ordered hierarchically: 1. growth needs (development of competence and realization of potential) 2. relatedness needs (satisfactory relations with others) 3. existence needs (physical well-being) Alderfer believed that as you start satisfying higher needs, they become more intense (e.g. the powerful you get, the more you want power), like an addiction. 23
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ERG MODEL OF MOTIVATION Frustration-Regression Satisfaction-Progression Growth Needs Relatedness Needs Existence Needs 24
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FRUSTRATION- REGRESSION Differs from Maslow: When unable to satisfy upper level needs, the individual will revert to satisfying lower level needs Interesting point from research .... growth stimulates growth. 25
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ACQUIRED NEEDS THEORY (MCCLELLAN) Some needs are acquired as a result of life experiences: - need for achievement, accomplish something difficult. as kids encouraged to do things for themselves. - need for affiliation, form close personal relationships. as kids rewarded for making friends. - need for power, control others, as kids, able to get what they want through controlling others. 26
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TYPES OF NEEDS N Ach-motive to meet some standard of excellence or to compete N Aff-motive to develop and maintain close and meaningful relationships N Pow-desire to influence and control others and the environment 27
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MCCLELLAN THEORY OF NEEDS 28
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TWO FACTOR THEORY (HERZBERG) According to Herzberg, two kinds of factors affect motivation, and they do it in different ways: Hygiene factors .
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