Result of his beliefs and cold war we would be

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result of his beliefs and Cold War – we would be hypocrites with the way we treated blacks – Soviet Union was trying to turn the world against the USA with this fact – Feb 1948 – Truman sent a message to congress calling for anti-lynching laws – the desegregation of armed forces – was not actually happening even after FEPC – also calls for the abolition of poll taxes – called for an establishment of a commission on Civil Rights – dejour (by law) vs. defacto (by reality) – AA had the law on their side but it was not the reality – since the 1930’s NAACP kept trying to test Plessy v. Ferguson II. Brown v. Board of Education (1954) – Supreme Court ruled that separate educational facilities were inheritly unequal regardless of physical condition – because of the social and psychological damage that separation imposed on children III. Brown 2 in 1955 – demanded that schools be desegregated with all deliberate speed Few cities did, while others were very slowly – Augusta, GA was the last to desegregate Southern Manifesto – manifesto – declaration of what you intend to do – impassioned plea – this is what must happen – 101 southern congressmen sign a manifest denouncing the decisions – said it was an abuse of judicial power – asked the people who voted for them to resist it IV. The Movement Expands: The Integrationist Phase A. Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-1956) – the singular moment where there was now a national movement – Rosa Parks – black seamstress – refused to give up her seat Montgumery AL – Dec. 5 1955 – leaders in Birmingham were looking for something to start their movement – she is arrested and tried and fined – was seized by leaders in Birmingham particularly MLK Jr – the boycott began the next day – refused to ride buses – was a major economic drain for the town – fairly strong backlash – boycott for a year – people would pull carpoolers – insurance was cancelled – firebombs thrown into house – 1956 – Montgomery decided to integrate buses – Supreme court declared segregation in public transportation to be illegal Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. – creates Southern Christian Leadership Conference 1. Non-Violent protest – based on his beliefs – civil disobedience 2. Christian Doctrines – love and tolerance 3. Models of Civil Disobedience – Henry David Thoreau and Gandhi SCLC – Southern Christian Leadership Conference – biggest group of the Civil rights mov’t - Created by MLK – takes civil rights to a national level B. T he Greensboro Sit-Ins (1960) – Feb 1 st 1960 – four black students in NC A&T University – sat in WollWorth’s Department store – were not served food in the restaurant – 20 people joined them next day –began spread of sit-ins throughout the south – things were thrown at them – coffee on the lap – these people are younger – take a little more risk – establish a new organization under LCLC – Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee –willing to take
more risk – Cress Department Store in Orangeburg South Carolina – same thing happened – tear gas and fire hoses were uses – 350 people were arrested

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