ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

The reward then is variable in relation to the number

Info icon This preview shows pages 8–10. Sign up to view the full content.

calls to secure a sale. The reward, then, is variable in relation to the number of successful calls the salesperson makes. Ironically, organizations with paid sick leave programs experience almost twice the absenteeism of organizations without such programs. Most organizations provide their salaried employees with paid sick leave as part of the employee’s fringe
Image of page 8

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

benefit program. The reality is that sick leave reinforces the wrong behavior, which is absence from work. When employees receive ten paid sick days a year, it is the unusual employee who isn’t sure to use them all up, regardless of whether or not he or she is sick. This suggests that organizations should reward attendance, not absence. Organizational applications of learning concepts are not restricted to managing the behavior of others. These concepts can also be used to allow individuals to manage their own behavior. This is called Self-management. Self-management requires an individual to deliberately manipulate stimuli, internal processes, and responses to achieve personal behavioral outcomes. The basic processes involve observing one’s own behavior, comparing the behavior with a standard, and rewarding oneself if the behavior meets the standards. Perception can be defined as a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. What one perceives can be substantially different from objective reality. For example, it is possible that all employees in a firm may view it as a great place to work-—favorable working conditions, interesting job assignments, good pay, an understanding and responsible management, but it is very unusual to find such agreement. People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. A number of factors shape and sometimes distort perception. When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she sees, that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver. For example, have you ever bought a new car and then suddenly noticed a large number of cars like yours on the road? It’s unlikely that the number of such cars suddenly increased. Rather, the purchase has influenced your perception so you are now more likely to notice them. Among the most personal characteristics affecting perception are attitudes, motives, interests, past experience, and expectations. Just as interests can narrow one’s focus, so do one’s past experiences. People perceive those things to which they can relate. However, in many instances, a person’s past experiences will act to nullify an object’s interest. Objects or events that have never been experienced before are more noticeable than those that have been experienced in the past. For example, a person is more likely to notice the operations along an assembly line if this is the first time they had seen an assembly line.
Image of page 9
Image of page 10
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern