was the state of France before the revolution that the Philosophés owe their effectiveness to. Prior to the revolution, French society was divided into three categories, or “The Three Estates”. They were, the clergy, or First Estate, the nobility, or Second Estate, and the common people, or Third Estate (The Rights 9). These three estates divided France. The First and Second estatesonly held collectively two and a half percent of France’s population, but held almost all the power and almost all of the wealth. The king, Louis XVI, was the successor to the
Sun King, Louis XIV. At this point in time, France was an absolute monarchy with an astounding gap between the social classes. The Third Estate ranged from the extremely poor to the moderately wealthy. However, most of the ThirdEstate consisted of the extremely poor. One of the primary industries in the Third Estate was the bread industry, which was heavily regulated by the Police. Occupations in this industry range from the bakers, toShow MoreThe French Revolution had many lasting results. It unified and increased the power of the national state. It increased the feeling of French nationalism, and it set a precedent for a democratic French government.Hope it will help you mate.Read more on Brainly.in - For nearly two decades the Italians had the excellent codes of law, a fair system of taxation, a better economic situation, and more religious and intellectual toleration than they had known for centuries....Everywhere old physical, economic, and intellectual barriers had beenthrown down and the Italians had begun to be aware of a common nationality.Likewise in Switzerlandthe long-term impact of the French Revolution has been assessed by Martin:It proclaimed the equality of citizens before the law, equality of languages, freedom of thought and faith; it created a Swiss citizenship, basis of our modern nationality, and the separation of powers, of which the old regime had no conception; it suppressed internal tariffs and other economic restraints; it unified weights and measures, reformed civil and penal law, authorized mixed marriages (between Catholics and Protestants), suppressed torture and improved justice; it developed education and public works.The greatest impact came in France itself. In addition to effects similar to those in Italy and Switzerland, France saw the introduction of the principle of legal equality, and the downgrading of the once powerful and rich Catholic Church to just a bureau controlled by
the government. Power became centralized in Paris, with its strong bureaucracy and an army supplied by conscripting all young men. French politics were permanently polarized—new names were given, 'left' and 'right' for the supporters and opponents of the principles of the Revolution.