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1.What is/are the exposure(s) of interest?2.What is the main outcome of interest? 3.Is the population experience from an open or closed cohort?How was membership in the study population defined? 4.Using the data in Table 2, calculate the incidence rate ratio and incidence rate difference for the association between having received an opioid prescription in the 180 days before the index overdose and the outcome of repeat overdose in the first year. Please show your work and provide interpretations for these quantities. For people who received an opioid prescription in the 180 days before the index overdose, IRE+=9681/31749=0.305 cases/person-year IRE- =(14263-9681)/(48343-31749)=0.276 cases/person-year During the studying period, IRR = IR+/IR- = 0.305/0.276 = 1.11 There is 1.11-fold higher incident rate of repeat overdose among people who received an opioid prescription compared to those who do not. During the studying period, IRD= IR+ - IR-=0.305-0.276=0.029 cases/person-year The incident rate of repeat overdose is 2.9 cases/100 person-year higher among people who received an opioid prescription compared to those who do not. 5.Individuals who survive an initial opioid overdose who had received an opioid prescription in the previous 180 days are followed by healthcare providers more frequently than those who had not received an opioid prescription in the prior 180 days. Furthermore, individuals who
EPI201: Homework 2 Page 8 of 8 NAME: Yiyang Yue have a repeat overdose are more likely to see a healthcare provider than those who do not have a repeat overdose. Draw a directed acyclic graph depicting how this may result in a non-causal association between having received an opioid prescription in the prior 180 days and the rate of repeat overdose if the study is based on data derived from visits to a healthcare provider. See the DAG above, because health care provider is a collier in this situation, (common effect for repeat overdose and opioid prescription), and we do the selection within the health care provider, it turns out we open a back-door path in this DAG, which created a non-causal association between exposure (opioid prescription) and outcome (repeat overdose). Opioid prescriptionHealth care providerRepeat overdose