Type of job Many jobs are simple labour jobs boring repetitive no skills

Type of job many jobs are simple labour jobs boring

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•Type of job; -Many jobs are simple labour jobs (boring, repetitive, no skills learned). -Better outcomes when jobs teach new skills, are challenging. -How money is spent; premature affluence. Extra-curricular activities •However, structured after-school activities (sports, music) is associated positively with grades and school performance. -Associated with decreased chance of dropping out. -Being involved in schools is a protective factor that buffers risk of dropping out; particularly important for those at high risk. Adolescent sleep patterns •National sleep foundation; poll of 6 th to 12 graders. -50% of teens sleepy during the day. -Only 20% report adequate sleep (9hrs a night). -9 th to 12 th graders; only 9% report adequate sleep, greater sleep deprivation in older adolescents. •Adolescents prefer to sleep later and wake up later. •Adolescents need more sleep than pre-adolescents and adults; about 8-9 hours. •However, most adolescents are getting about 7 hours or less per night. •Often “catch-up” on weekends, which further disrupts circadian rhythms and patterns. •Poor sleep is associated with; -Poorer health, greater chance of illness. -Obesity. -Poor self-control. -Poor academic performance. -Poor learning, memory, attention, thinking. -Mood disorders. -Risky driving. Why are adolescents not getting enough sleep? •Biology; 37
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1.Melatonin, hormone secreted by pineal gland, induces drowsiness in evening and maintains sleep-wake cycle. -Secretion is delayed in adolescents, leading to later sleep time, shift in sleep-wake cycle. 2.Some evidence that adolescents have longer circadian rhythm (24.3 hours). 3.Sleep-wake homeostasis: Build-up of “sleep drive” or sleep pressure. -During daytime when you are awake, an intrinsic need for sleep builds up (EX: Taking nap decreases this drive). -Adolescents accumulate sleep pressure more slowly, leading to sleeping later. •Social, contextual factors; -Electronic devices: Distractions, and light from devices. -Caffeinated beverages. -Extracurricular activities. -Work. -Greater autonomy for bed times. -School schedule. Young adult Modern changes •What changes in society has set the stage for emerging adulthood? 1.Technonological revolution: 2.Sexual revolution: 3.Womens movements: 4. •And what changes has it led to? Emerging adulthood •Identity exploration. •Instability. •Self-focus. •Feeling in-between. •Possibilities. Relationships •Parents. •Siblings. •Friendships. •Romantic relationships. Parents •Relationship improves (greater closeness, less conflict) when children leave home. •Dubas and Petersen; 21 years old who lived an hour away had highest levels of closeness with parents, then those who lived within an hour drive, and lowest for those living at home. 38
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•Why? Siblings •Spend less time with siblings. •Less conflict and less intense. •But report more emotional closeness and warmth. •Less influenced, related to relationship with parents that in adolescence. Friendships •Friendships during emerging and young adulthood; typically have more friends and acquaintances during this period.
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