●First State Constitution ○After the Declaration of Independence in 1776, most former colonies began forming their own written constitutions, modeling the tradition of colonial charters.These constitutions also significantly limited the power of the executive, featuringa separation between the legislative and executive branches. Most of these constitutions still limited popular participation to one house of the legislature. ○Effect: Provided stability and strong self-sufficient government at the state level. Many state constitutions survived decades without modification. ●Foreign assistance (132 BLUE)○The Continental Army and George Washington were assisted by foreign military experts such as the Marquis de Lafayette from France and Baron von Steuben from Prussia. These foreign advisors disciplined the Continental Army, turning it into a stable functioning force that was able to defeat Britain. ●George Washington (104, 116 TAN) (132 BLUE) ○George Washington was the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army and thefirst President of the United States. A Virginian, he had experience commanding forces in the French and Indian war, and had been an early advocate for independence. He was admired, trusted, and respected by Patriots, and provideda symbol of stability during the war effort, able to keep morale up. ●Great fire of New York, 1776(online)●Hessians (119 TAN)
○●Henry Clinton (123 TAN)●Horatio Gates (121 TAN)●Invasion of Canada (135 BLUE)○late 1775, early 1776 ○In the first phase of the war, Americans launched an invasion of Canada, hoping to remove the British and win Canadian support for American independence. Thecampaign was led by Benedict Arnold and Richard Montgomery, but both the siege on Quebec and efforts to win Canadian allegiance failed. ●Iroquois Confederacy (138 BLUE)○The Iroquois Confederacy was a tribe that was badly affected by the French and Indian War. They were offered by the British to help defeat the colonists and retain some of the land they lost. However the Confederacy was not fully in support of the British. ●John Locke 1632-1704 (118 TAN) , Prominent work (two treatises on gov) published 1689○17th century English Philosopher ○Important ideas include that governments gain their legitimacy from the consent of the governed and that all men are born with natural rights—primarily life, liberty, and property. These are the rights that men would have when not in civilization, and they must be preserved in any just society. Locke’s ideas were fundamental to Enlightenment thought and principles.John Locke’s ideas would eventually be used by the founding fathers in several important documents, including Thomas Paine in Common Sense and Thomas Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence. ●John Burgoyne (121 TAN)○John Burgoyne led the second British force, during the Mid-Atlantic phase.
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