The simulated plant model is usually cost less and more stable than a real

The simulated plant model is usually cost less and

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model. The simulated plant model is usually cost less and more stable than a real plant. Beside the advantages mentioned above, HIL allows testing a model with less cost and without risk. In PS application, a real-time simulator is used to implement both controller model and a virtual plant model as illustrated in figure 3.1 [23] [24]. RT- LAB™ Overview The software used in this study is RT- LAB™ (Workbench) Version: v10.5.5.301. RT-LAB is a distributed real-time platform that enables engineers and researchers to run Simulink dynamic models at real-time with hardware-in-the-loop (HIL), at low cost, high accuracy and a very short time.
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29 Its scalability allows the developer to add computing power where and when it is needed. It is flexible enough to be applied to the most complex simulation and control problem, whether it is a Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop application or for speeding up model execution, control and test. Embedded device in a real-time system is given a predetermined amount of time (1 ms, 5 ms, or 20 ms) to read input signals, such as sensors, to perform all necessary calculations, such as control algorithms, and to write all outputs, such as analog/digital outputs. The model is solved by fixed-step solvers within fixed intervals called step size ( S T ) as shown in figure 3.2. Figure 3.2 Proper choices for time step simulation. As shown in figure 3.3, overrun occurs when a predetermined time step is too short and cannot perform the process of the simulation. To overcome this overrun, the time step should be increased to omit this interference with next interval. But, increasing time step decreases the accuracy of the results [25].
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30 Figure 3.3 Improper choices for time step simulation. Hardware Details The simulator used in this study is OP5600 real-time digital simulator and this simulator is used to demonstrate the real-time performance of an average model of wind farm connected to distributed network. It is built using low cost, high availability commercial-off-the-shelf ( COTS ) components that includes advanced monitoring capabilities and scalable input/output and processor power. The eMEGASim® simulator contains a powerful real-time target computer equipped12- 3.3 GHz processor cores running Red Hat Linux real-time operating and two user-programmable FPGA-based I/O management options available, powered by the Xilinx Spartan-3 or more powerful Virtex-6 FPGA processor. Available expansion slots accommodate up to 8 signal conditioning and analog /digital converters modules with 16 or 32 channels each for a total of fast 128 analog or 256 discrete or a mix of analog and digital signals [26]. It releases as a single target that can be networked into a multiple-target PC cluster or for complex applications capable of implementing large models with more than 3000 I/O channels
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31 and a time step below 25 micros. This also allows including hardware-in-loop (HIL) testing, complex power grids, micro-grids, wind farms, hybrid vehicles, more electrical aircrafts, electrical ships and power electronic systems can be simulated with time step as low as 10
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