The 3R principle was presented in Agenda 21 during the UN Conference on

The 3r principle was presented in agenda 21 during

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The 3R principle was presented in Agenda 21, during the UN Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, and since then, it has been developed by several countries. The 3R hierarchy follows the principle that it has less impact to avoid waste generation than to recycle materials after disposal. “Reduce” is the first step in the 3R principle, and it consists of actions aimed at reducing waste generation, either by minimising at source or by reducing waste. “Reuse” is the second step that can be implemented through actions that enable its use for various purposes, optimise the maximum use before final disposal, or even return to the production process, seeking its replacement for the same or different purpose. “Recycle” is the third and last step from the 3R approach. Recycling is a set of techniques
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CSR approach on e-waste BL7001 CSR & Environmental Law 5 that aims to take advantage of the waste and reuse them in the production cycle from which they came or in a new process. Incineration, according to Williams (2002), “is a process that consists of burning the waste at elevated temperatures in an oxygen-rich environment for a certain period, resulting in a reduction in mass and volume and its transformation into inert material”. The incineration process is an air pollution generator, and some of these substances can affect directly or indirectly human health. As reported by Holmes (2009), “Some of the more unpleasant substances can be directly related to the combustion of WEEE…” In countries with a waste management national policy, companies which operate in the incineration business must implement an air pollution control system. However, it is still a challenge in most developing countries. “A landfill site is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial”. (wikipedia.org). According to Williams (2002), “landfill disposal is seen in many respects as the bottom rung of the hierarchy of waste disposal options when considering the concept of sustainable waste management”. As reported by Holmes (2009), “there are two main pollutants produced by the landfilling process, both of which can have serious effects on the environment. These are landfill gas and leachate”. As reported by Baldé et al. (2017), in 2016 the total of e-waste generated in the world was approximately 44,7 million metric tonnes, representing 6,1 kg per inhabitant; and, presents an e-waste estimate generation of 52.2 Mt in 2021, representing an increase of 4% per year. Furthermore, Baldé et al. (2017), also presents the following composition of the 2016 e-waste: 2016 e-waste generated by region: o Asia – 41% o Europe – 27% o America – 25% o Africa – 5%
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CSR approach on e-waste BL7001 CSR & Environmental Law 6 o Oceania – 2% 2016 e-waste generated by region per inhabitant (kg): o Oceania – 17,3 o Europe – 16,6 o America – 11,6 o Asia – 4,2 o Africa – 1,9 Based on this data, the e-waste growth has been mainly affected by consumer- style practices in different regions of the world. For example, in 2016, Oceania had the lowest volume of e-waste generated (2%) compared to other regions; however, it had the highest volume of e-waste per inhabitant (17,3kg).
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