has three different detergent products for the affluent middle class and low

Has three different detergent products for the

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has three different detergent products: for the affluent, middle class and low-income Centre for global innovation: sensing of global market needs, design and product development at centre and implemented globally/locally Amazon Prime Air innovation born in Seattle, US research lab for local deliveries worldwide (currently being tested in the UK) Locally leveraged: local opportunity sensed by subsidiary then leveraged on a worldwide basis P&G: SKII product came from Japan - local idea implemented across the world Globally-linked: Resources and capabilities of many operations pooled to jointly create and manage new activity P&G: facial cloth involved US and Japan R&D specialists Volkswagen Beetle involved US, Germany and Mexico R&D Transnational models require strong integration and coordination mechanisms GI / LR trade-off in IHRM Same pressures influence transfer across MNE network of IHRM policies and practices (e.g. HR planning; selection and recruitment; compensation; performance appraisal; and training and development) Degree of transfer influenced by corporate-level organisational context Management’s emphasis on HRM importance as a source of competitive advantage (=> greater the emphasis: greater the transfer) International experience of the MNE (=> greater the experience: the more internationally diverse HR practices are) International competitive strategy in global versus multidomestic industries (=> global: greater the transfer from parent) Degree of parent control over subsidiary (in the form of resource reliance, communication and expatriation) (=> more control: greater the transfer) Degree of transfer subject to host country: Culture Varying emphasis on gender diversity (women could be underrepresented), work norms, local customs and languages can impact workplace policies, practices and codes of conduct Legal and regulatory constraints Performance evaluation and compensation most locally responsive Influence of unions and labour-management relations can influence HR practices (e.g. inclusion of union reps on boards and in wage negotiations; minimum number of weeks, minimum wages, etc) Economic standards Local and expatriate compensation pegged to cost of living
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LISA YANG IBUS20002 Business in the Global Economy OUTSOURCING “Firms usually internalise […] those value chain activities that they consider part of their core competence, or which involve the use of proprietary knowledge and trade secrets […and] will usually source from external suppliers when the sourced products or services are peripheral to the firm’s main offerings, can be obtained at lower cost or can be provided by [specialist] suppliers..” (Textbk p.496) Benefits and challenges of outsourcing Benefits of outsourcing are substantial Greater cost efficiency, productivity and quality More internal focus on developing core competencies (e.g. product design and marketing), innovation, customer service and achieving growth objectives
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