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Experiencs can modify the onset of accomplishmentsoEx: pediatrcians began recommending that parents place their babies on backs to sleep. Following that, babies who back-sleep began crawling later, typically several weeks later than babies who sleep prone. Also, some infants do not follow the standardsequence of motor accomplishments. Ex: Many American infants never crawl on their belly or on their hands and knees. Theymight discover and isiosyncratic form of locomotion before walking, such as rolling. Or they may never locomote until they are upright.
In Jamaica, approximately ¼ of babies skip crawling.Development in the Second Year: Motor activity during second year is vital to child’s competent development and few restrictions, except for safety, should be paced on their adventures.By 13-18 months, toddlers can pull a toy attached to a string and use their hands and legs to climb up a number of steps. By 18-24 months, toddlers can qlak quickly or run stiffly for a short distance, balance on their feet in a squatting position while playing with objects on the floor, walk backward without losing their balance, stand and kick a ball without faling, stand and throw a ball, and jump in place. Most infancy experts recommend against structured exercise classes for babies. Vigorous handling of babies might advance motor development, as shown in some cultures.Cultural Variations in Guiding Infants’ Motor Devleopment:Mother’s in developing countries tend to stimulate their infant’s motor skills more than mothers in more developed countries. In many African, Indian, and Caribbean cultures, mothers massage and stretch their infants during daily baths.When caregivers provide babies with physical guidance by physically handling them in special ways (such as stroking, massaging, or stretching) or by giving them opportunities for exercise, the infants often reach motor milestones earlier than infants whose caregivers have not provided these activities. oEx: Jamaican mothers expect infants to sit and walkalone two to three months earlier than English mothers do. In sub-Saharan African, traditional practices in many villages involve mothers and isblings engaging babies in exercises, such as for trunk and pelvic musclesPractices that restrain infat’s movement—such as Chinese sandbags, orphanage restrictions and failure of caregivers to encourage movement in Budapest—have been found to produce substantial delays in motor development. In some rural Chinese provinces, for example, babies are placed in abag of fine sand, which acts as a diaper and is changed once a day. The baby is left alone, face up, and is visite donly when being fed by the mother. Some studies of swaddling show slight delays in motor development, but
other studies show no delays. Cultures that swaddle infants usually do so before the infant is mobile. When the infant becomes more mobile, swaddling decreases.